PENGARUH LAJU ALIR LPG (SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR BURNER) TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK NANOKOMPOSIT ZnO/Fe2O3 YANG DIBUAT MENGGUNAKAN FLAME SPRAY PYROLISIS

Agus Purwanto, Arif Jumari, Sperisa Distantina

Abstract


Abstract: Biodiesel is produced through catalytic esterification process of vegetable oil and alcohol. Producing of biodiesel was much carried out using homogeneous catalyst (acid/base). These process had many disanvantages: high energy consumption, side product formed and complicated separation among side product and catalyst. ZnO as transesterification catalyst has given high yield. To improve the catalytic performance, surface area per mas of catalyst must be increased by decreasing size of particle. To ease separation between product and catalyst, magnetic behaviour should be added to the catalyst. Aims of research were to obtain nanocomposite ZnO/Fe2O3   and  determine  physical characteristic as  well  as  catalytic  and separation performance of nanocomposite ZnO/Fe2O3. Nanocomposite ZnO/Fe2O3  was synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis method. Assisted by carrier air precursor solution of Zn(NO3)2  and Fe(NO3)3  was nebulized and flowed to inner tube of burner. Nebulasation was carried out by varying carrier gas flow rate but at constant rate of nebulization. LPG gas dan oxidant air were flowed to the inner annulus and outer annulus, respectively. The solid produced was separated from gas by particle filter. Solid particle obtained was then examined by X Ray Defraction (XRD), FE-SEM and BET as wel as catalytic performance. The result of the research showed that crystalinity of particles increased by increasing LPG flow rate. Particle size of ZnO/Fe2Onanocomposite decreased by increasing LPG flow rate and size were dominantly between  50-100  nm.  A  part  of  particle was  flowerlike particle.  Specific  surface area    of ZnO/Fe2O3 nanocomposite increased by increasing LPG flow rate and its value were between 45-55 m2/gram.

 Keywords: Tran-esterification, nanocomposite ZnO/Fe2O3,  flame spray pyrolysis,   carrier gasparticle size, morphology of particle, specific surface area


Full Text:

PDF

References


Angelo C. Pinto, Lilian L.N. Guarieiro, Michele

J.C. Rezende, Nubia M. Ribeiro, Ednildo

A. Torres, Wilson A. Lopes, Pedro A. de

P. Pereira and Jailson B. de Andrade,

, “Biodiesel: An Overview”, Journal of Brazilian Chemcal Society 16, 6B, pp.

-1330

Christian Janzen, Jorg Knipping, Bernd

Rellinghaus and Paul Roth, 2003, ”

Formation of silica-embedded iron-oxide nanoparticles in low-pressure flames”, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 5, pp.

–596

Clint R. Bickmore, Kurt F. Waldner, Rita Baranwal, Tom Hinklin, David R. Treadwell, Richard M. Laine, 1998, “Ultrafine Titania by Flame Spray

Pyrolysis of a Titranatane Complex”,

Journal of European Ceramic Society 18, pp 287-297

D. P. Dufaux and R. L. Axelbaum, 1995, “ Nanoscale Unagglomerated Nonoxide Particles from a Sodium Coflow Flame”, Combustion and Flame 100, pp. 350-358

Dora E. Lopez, Kaewta Suwannakarn, David A.

Bruce, James G. Goodwin Jr.m 2007,”

Esterification and transesterification on tungstated zirconia: Effect of calcination temperature”, Journal of Catalysis 247, pp. 43-50

Hee Dong Jang, 2001, “Experimental study of synthesis of silica nanoparticles by a bench-scale diffusion flame reactor”, Powder Technology 119, pp. 102–108

Hendrik K Kammler, Luts Madler and Sotiris E.

Pratsinis, 2001, “Flame Synthesis of Nanoparticles”, Chemical Engineering Technology vol. 24 no 6, pp 583-596

J.M. Makela, H. Keskinen, T. Forsblom, J.

Keskinen, 2004, “Generation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by liquid flame spray pyrolysis”, Journal of

Material Science 29, pp 2783-2788

Jaturong Jitputti, Boonyarach Kitiyanan, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Kunchana Bunyakiat, Lalita Attanatho, Peesamai Jenvanitpanjakul, 2006, “Transeterification of crude palm kernel oil and crude coconut oil by different solid catalysts”, Chemical Engineering Journal

, pp. 61-66

Jon Van Gerpen, 2005, “Biodiesel processing

anf production”, Fuel Processing

Technology 86, pp. 1097-1107

L. Madler, K.H. Kamler, R Mueller and S.E Pratsinis, 2002, “Controlled synthesis of nanostructured particles by flame spray pyrolysis”, Aerosol Science 33, pp 369-389

Reto Strobel, Frank Krumeich, Wendelin J.

Stark, Sotiris E. Pratsinis and Alfons

Baiker, 2004, “Flame spray synthesis of

Pd/Al2O3 catalysts and their behavior in enantioselective hydrogenation”, Journal of Catalysis 222, pp. 307–314

S. Grimm, M. Schultz, S. Barth, 1997, “ Flame pyrolysis-a preparation route for Ultrafine pure γ-Fe2O3 powders and the Control of Their Particle Size and Properties”, Journal of Material Science 32, pp 1083-1092

T. Sahm, L. Madler, A. Gurlo, N. Barsan, S. E.

Pratsinis, U. Weimar, 2004, “Flame Spray Synthesis of Tin Dioxide Nanoparticles for Gas Sensing”, Sensor and Actuators B 98, pp 148-153

Takao Tani, Lutz Madler and Sotiris E. Pratsinis,

, “Homogeneous ZnO nanoparticles

by flame spray pyrolysis”, Journal of

Nanoparticle Research 4, pp. 337–343

Takao Tani, Lutz Madler, Sotiris E. Pratsinis,

, Synthesis of -Willemite Nanoparticles by Post-calcination of Flame-made Zinc Oxide/Silica Composites”, Part. Part. Syst. Charact.

, pp. 354-358

Wenlei Xei, Hong Peng, Ligong Chen,” Transesterification of soybean oil catalyzed by potassium loaded on alumina as a solid-base catalyst”, Applied Catalysis A: General 300, pp. 67-74

Y.C. Kang, D.J. Seo, S.B. Park and H.B. Park,

, ”Direct synthesis of Strontium

Titanate Phosphor particles with high

luminescence by flame spray pyrolysis”, Material Research Bulletin 37, pp 263-269

Yasumasa Takao and Mitsuo Sando, 2001, “Flame synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Filler-Powder”, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 34, 6, pp 828-833.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20961/ekuilibrium.v10i1.2224

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.