Carbon Ink Characterization from Banana and Cassava Peels by Carbonization Method

Siti Fatimah, Nimas Mustika, Suci Pratiwi


Banana and cassava plants are the most growing plants in the world. The use of both plant's peel is usually for animal feed. This research is intended to utilize banana and cassava peel as a raw material of whiteboard ink markers by varying concentration of the carbons to see its effect on the characteristics of the ink.  The carbon concentration variations are 25 g, 30 g, 35 g, 40 g, and 45 g, which is dissolved in 100 ml of the solution. The steps of this research include the carbonization of banana or cassava peel, and then its carbon powder is sifted by 200 mesh. The powder will be dissolved in 50 ml of Arabic gum 10%, 15 ml of PEG-7, and 35 ml of alcohol 70%, then the solution stirred until homogeneous. The result showed that the addition of the Banana or cassava peels carbon concentration effect on the value of density, viscosity, pH, and pigment ink. The characteristic whiteboard ink markers from the banana peel that accordance with the commercial ink. It is consists of 30% Banana peel carbon concentration with a density value of 1.0077 g/cm3, viscosity value of 6.2049 cP, pH value of 10.55, and the ink pigment are close enough with the commercial refill ink. While the characteristic from cassava consists of 35% cassava peel carbon concentration with a density value of 1.0893 g/cm3, viscosity value of 15,2427 cP, pH value of 8,75, and the ink pigment are close enough with the commercial ink

Full Text:



N. K. Mondal, “Natural Banana (Musa acuminate) Peel: an Unconventional Adsorbent for Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution through Batch Study,” Water Conserv. Sci. Eng., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 223–232, Mar. 2017,


K. G. Akpomie and J. Conradie, “Banana peel as a biosorbent for the decontamination of water pollutants. A review,” Environ. Chem. Lett., Apr. 2020,


N.Salahudeen, C. S. Ajinomoh, & S. O. Omaga, Production of Activated. Journal of Applied Phytotechnology in Environmental Sanitation, vol. 3, no2, pp. 75-80, 2014

Google Scholar

C. Abdi, R. M. Khair & M. W. Saputra, "Pemanfaatan limbah kulit pisang kepok (Musa acuminate L.) sebagai karbon aktif untuk pengolahan air sumur kota Banjarbaru: Fe Dan Mn". Jukung (Jurnal Teknik Lingkungan), vol.1, no.1, 2016.


T. S. Tran, N. K. Dutta, and N. R. Choudhury, “Graphene inks for printed flexible electronics: Graphene dispersions, ink formulations, printing techniques and applications,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., vol. 261, pp. 41–61, Nov. 2018,


M. Gajadhur and M. Regulska, “Mechanical and light resistance of flexographic conductive ink films intended for printed electronics,” Dyes Pigments, vol. 178, p. 108381, Jul. 2020,


J. Frketic, T. Dickens, and S. Ramakrishnan, “Automated manufacturing and processing of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites: An additive review of contemporary and modern techniques for advanced materials manufacturing,” Addit. Manuf., vol. 14, pp. 69–86, Mar. 2017,


S. Hassanpour, A. Saadati, M. Hasanzadeh, N. Shadjou, A. Mirzaie, and A. Jouyban, “Direct writing of biocatalytic materials based on pens filled with high-tech enzymatic inks: ‘Do-it-Yourself,’” Microchem. J., vol. 145, pp. 266–272, Mar. 2019,


S.Choi, K. H. Cho, J. W. Namgoong, J. Y. Kim, E. S.Yoo, W. Lee, &J. Choi, “The synthesis and characterisation of the perylene acid dye inks for digital textile printing,” Dyes Pigments, vol. 163, pp. 381–392, Apr. 2019.


C. J. Mena-Durán, I. L. Alonso-Lemus, P. Quintana, R. Barbosa, L. C. Ordoñez, and B. Escobar, “Preparation of metal-free electrocatalysts from cassava residues for the oxygen reduction reaction: A sulfur functionalization approach,” Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 3172–3179, Feb. 2018,


J. H. Lee, J. W. Kweon,W. S. Cho, J. H. Kim, K. T. Hwang, H. J.Hwang, & K. S. Han, “Formulation and characterization of black ce

ramic ink for a digital ink-jet printing,” Ceram. Int., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 14151–14157, Aug. 2018,


C. O’Rourke, N. Wells, and A. Mills, “Photodeposition of metals from inks and their application in photocatalysis,” Catal. Today, Sep. 2018,


Z. Pan, Y. Wang, H. Huang, Z. Ling, Y. Dai, and S. Ke, “Recent development on preparation of ceramic inks in ink-jet printing,” Ceram. Int., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 12515–12528, Dec. 2015, .


A. Stavrinou, C. A. Aggelopoulos, and C. D. Tsakiroglou, “Exploring the adsorption mechanisms of cationic and anionic dyes onto agricultural waste peels of banana, cucumber and potato: Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms as a tool,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 6958–6970, Dec. 2018,


L. E.Laos, "Pemanfaatan Kulit Singkong Sebagai Bahan Baku Karbon Aktif". JIPF (Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan Fisika), vol.1, no.1, pp. 32-36, 2016


M. Momeni-Nasab, S. M. Bidoki, M. Hadizadeh, and M. Movahhedi, “Fabrication of electromagnetic waves absorbing material by ink-jet printing method,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., Apr. 2020,


Y.K. Shen, Z.Liu, X.L.Wang, W.K.Ma, Z.H.Chen, T.P.Chen, H.Y.Zhang “Synthesis of IGZO ink and study of ink-jet printed IGZO thin films with different Ga concentrations,” Solid-State Electron., vol. 138, pp. 108–112, Dec. 2017,


L.-F. Wang and J.-W. Rhim, “Isolation and characterization of melanin from black garlic and sepia ink,” LWT, vol. 99, pp. 17–23, Jan. 2019,


M. Dhelipan, A. Arunchander, A. K. Sahu, and D. Kalpana, “Activated carbon from orange peels as supercapacitor electrode and catalyst support for oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cell,” J. Saudi Chem. Soc., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 487–494, May 2017,


G. M. Vlăsceanu, H. Iovu, and M. Ioniţă, “Graphene inks for the 3D printing of cell culture scaffolds and related molecular arrays,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 162, pp. 712–723, Apr. 2019,


S. Longoria-García et al., “Rheological effects of high substitution levels of fats by inulin in whole cassava dough: chemical and physical characterization of produced biscuits,” J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1517–1522, Apr. 2020,


S. Noppakundilograt, P. Buranagul, W. Graisuwan, C. Koopipat, and S. Kiatkamjornwong, “Modified chitosan pretreatment of polyester fabric for printing by ink jet ink,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 1124–1135, Nov. 2010,


M.Müller, P. Fisch, M. Molnar, S. Eggert,M. Binelli, K. Maniura-Weber, & M. Zenobi-Wong, “Development and thorough characterization of the processing steps of an ink for 3D printing for bone tissue engineering,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 108, p. 110510, Mar. 2020,


Z. Chu, J. Peng, and W. Jin, “Advanced nanomaterial inks for screen-printed chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem., vol. 243, pp. 919–926, May 2017,


S. K. Dwivedi et al., “P3HT:PCBM and Cu2SnSe3 nano-ink based hybrid solar cells,” Sol. Energy, vol. 177, pp. 382–386, Jan. 2019,



  • There are currently no refbacks.