Influence of Upwelling in the Southern Waters of Java on CO2 Concentration in Kototabang, Agam District West

Martono Martono, Fanny Aditya Putri


Absorption of atmospheric CO2 by the sea through two processes, namely solubility pumps and biological pumps. This study aims to determine the effect of upwelling in the southern waters of Java on atmospheric CO2 concentrations in Kototabang. The data used are in situ CO2 concentration, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration from 2004-2016. The method used was descriptive analysis. The results showed that upwelling that occurred during JJA-SON caused a decrease in sea surface temperature to 26.8 °C and 27.1 °C respectively, as well as an increase chlorophyll-a concentration to 2.03 mg/m3 and 2.19 mg/m3. In both seasons CO2 concentration in Kototabang dropped to 385.8 ppm and 385.4 ppm. Meanwhile, when there was no upwelling during DJF-MAM, sea surface temperatures rose to 28.8 °C and 29.0 °C, and chlorophyll-a concentration dropped to 0.32 mg/m3 and 0.54 mg/m3. CO2 concentration in DJF and MAM increased to 386.3 ppm and 386.5 ppm. Based on these results it is known that when upwelling occurs, CO2 concentration decrease and vice versa.


upwelling; CO2; sea surface temperature; chlorophyll-a irradiation

Full Text:



M. González‐Dávila, J. M Santana‐Casiano, M.‐J. Rueda, O. Llinás, & E.‐F.González‐Dávila, “Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Sea‐Surface Carbon Dioxide Species at the European Station for Time Series in the Ocean at the Canary Islands (ESTOC) between 1996 and 2000”, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, vol. 17, no.3, 2003. DOI: 10.1029/2002GB001993

W. S. Pranowo, N. S. Adi, A. Rustam, T. L. Kepel, B. A. Subki, T. R Adi, & S. Wirasantosa, Rencana Strategis Riset Karbon Laut di Indonesia, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan Republik Indonesia, 2010, ISBN 978-602-9086-18-8.

S. Basu & K. R. M. Mackey, “Phytoplankton as Key Mediators of the Biological Carbon Pump: Their Responses to a Changing Climate,”. Sustainability, vol. 10, no 3 pp. 869, 2018. DOI: 10.3390/su10030869

S. C. Tripathy, S. Pavithran, P. Sabu, R. K. Naik, S. B. Noronha, P. V. Bhaskar, & N. Anilkumar, “Is Primary Productivity in the Indian Ocean sector of Southern Ocean Affected by Pigment Packaging Effect?” Current Science, vol. 107, no.6 , pp. 1019-1026, 2014. DOI: 10.18520/cs/v107/i6/1019-1026

S. H. Ooi, A. A. Samah, & P. Braesicke, “Primary Productivity and Its Variability in the Equatorial South China Sea during the Northeast Monsoon,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., vol. 13, pp. 21573-21608, 2013.

DOI: 10.5194/acpd-13-21573-2013

N. Hendiarti, “Hubungan antara Keberadaan Ikan Pelagis dengan Fenomena Oseanografi dan Perubahan Iklim Musiman Berdasarkan Analisis Data Penginderaan Jauh,” Globë., vol. 10, no.1, pp. 19–25, 2008.

Google Schoolar

D. Surinati, “Upwelling dan Efeknya terhadap Perairan Laut,” Oseana, vol. XXXIV, no.4, pp. 35-42, 2009. Google Schoolar

M. Ravichandran, M. S. Girishkumar, & S. Riser, “Observed Variability of Chlorophyll-a using Argo Profiling Floats in the Southeastern Arabia Sea,” Deep-Sea Research I, vol. 65, pp.15-25, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2012.03.003

J. Ma, H. Liu, H. Zhan, P. Lin, & Y. Du,” Effesct of Chlorophyll-a on Upper Ocean Temperature and Circulation in the Upwelling Regions of the South China Sea,” Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, vol. 15, pp. 127-134, 2012. DOI: 10.1080/14634988.2012.687663

K. Wyrtki, “The Upwelling in the Region between Java and Australia during the South-east Monsoon,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., vol. 13, no.3, pp. 217-225, 1962. DOI: 10.1071/MF9620217

T. Qu, Y. Du, J. Strachan, G.Meyers, & J. Slingo, “Sea Surface Temperature And Its Variability in the Indonesian Region,” Oceanography, vol. 18, no.4, pp. 50–61, 2005. DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2005.05

Siswanto & Suratno, “Seasonal Pattern of Wind Induced Upwelling over Java-Bali Sea Waters and Surrounding Area,” International J. of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 46-56, 2008. DOI: 10.30536/j.ijreses.2008.v5.a1228

P. Kemili & M. R. Putri, “Pengaruh Durasi dan Intensitas Upwelling Berdasarkan Anomali Suhu Permukaan Laut terhadap Variabilitas Produktivitas Primer Di Perairan Indonesia,” Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, vol. 4, no.1, pp. 66-79, 2012. Google Schoolar

R. B. B. Yoga, H. Setyono, & G. Harsono, “Dinamika Upwelling dan Downwelling Berdasarkan Variabilitas Suhu Permukaan Laut dan Klorofil-A di Perairan Selatan Jawa,” Jurnal Oseanografi, vol. 3, no.1, pp. 57-66, 2014.Google Schoolar

R. T. D. Kuswardani & F. Qiao, “Influence of the Indonesian Throughflow on the Upwelling off the east Coast of South Java,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 59, no.33, pp. 4516-4523, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/s11434-014-0549-2

R. D. Susanto, A.L. Gordon, & Q. Zheng, “Upwelling along the Coast of Java-Sumatra and Its Relation to ENSO,” Geophysical Research Lett., vol. 28, no.8, pp. 1599-1602, 2001. DOI: 10.1029/2000GL011844

R. D. Susanto & J. Marra, “Effect of the 1997/98 El Niño on Chlorophyll a Variability along the Southern Coasts of Java and Sumatra,” Oceanography, vol. 18, no.4, pp. 124–127, 2005. DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2005.13

K. Kunarso, S. Hadi, N. Ningsih, & M. Baskoro, "Variabilitas Suhu dan Klorofil-a di Daerah Upwelling pada Variasi Kejadian ENSO dan IOD di Perairan Selatan Jawa sampai Timor," ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences, vol. 16, no.3, pp. 171-180, Feb. 2012. DOI: 10.14710/ik.ijms.16.3.171-180

N. Narayan, A. Paul, S. Mulitza, & M. Schulz, “Trends in Coastal Upwelling Intensity During the Late 20th Century,” Ocean Sci. Discuss, vol. 7, pp. 335–360, 2010. DOI: 10.5194/os-6-815-2010

J. Boe, A. Hall, F. Colas, J.C. McWilliams, X. Qu, J. Kurian, & S. B. Kapnick, “What Shapes Mesoscale Wind Anomalies in Coastal Upwelling Zones?,” Clim Dyn, vol. 36, pp. 2037–2049, 2011. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-011-1058-5

A. Junaedi, “Kontribusi Hutan Sebagai Rosot Karbondioksida,” Info Hutan, Vol, V No.1:1-7, 2008. Google Schoolar

T. Samiaji, “Gas CO2 di Wilayah Indonesia,” Berita Dirgantara, vol. 12, no.2, pp. 68-75, 2011.

"> Google Schoolar

N. Yulianti, “Pengenalan Bencana Kebakaran dan Kabut Asap Lintas Batas,” Penerbit IPB Press, Bogor. Google Schoolar

Endrawati, Analisis Data Titik Panas (Hotspot) dan Areal Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan Tahun 2016, Jakarta : Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan, 2016. Google Schoolar

C. T. A. Chen & A. V. Borges,”Reconciling views on carbon cycling in the coastal ocean: Continental shelves as sinks and near-shore ecosystem as sources of atmospheric CO2,” Deep-Sea Res II, vol. 56, pp. 578–590, 2009.DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.01.001

D. Herr & G.R. Galland, The Ocean and Climate Change. Tools and Guidelines for Action. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2009. Google Schoolar

C. Heinze, S.Meyer, N. Goris, L. Anderson, R. Steinfeldt, N. Chang, C. Le Quéré, & D. C. E. Bakker, “The Ocean Carbon Sink – Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Challenges,” Earth Syst. Dynam., vol. 6, pp. 327–358, 2015. DOI: 10.5194/esd-6-327-2015

D. Nomura, H. Yoshikawa-Inoue, S. Kobayashi, S. Nakaoka, K. Nakata, & G. Hashida, “Winter-to-summer evolution of pCO2 in surface water and air–sea CO2 flux in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean,” Biogeosciences, 11, pp. 5749–5761, 2014. DOI: 10.5194/bg-11-5749-2014

Afdal, “Fluks CO2 di Perairan Pesisir Pulau Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat,” Oseanologi dan Limnologi di Indonesia, vol. 1, no.2, pp. 91–103, 2016. DOI: 10.14203/oldi.2016.v1i2.14

N.R Bates & J.T. Mathis, “The Arctic Ocean Marine Carbon Cycle: Evaluation of Air-Sea CO2 Exchanges, Ocean Acidification Impacts and Potential Feedbacks,” Biogeosciences, vol. 6, pp. 2433-2459, 2009. DOI: 10.5194/bg-6-2433-2009


  • There are currently no refbacks.