The Effect of Bilimbi Juice Levels and Soaking Time on The Growth of Aspergillus flavus, L. in Corn Kernels

Jatmiko Susilo, Agitya Resti Erwinarti, Zaira Ri Apriarti


produces aflatoxin compounds that are hepatocarcinogenic. The study intends to analyze the effect of concentration and soaking time of corn kernels in bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi) juice on the growth of Aspergillus flavus. The experimental research, corn kernels soaked in star fruit juice concentrations of 5, 10, and 15% v/v, for 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Corn kernels are taken and planted in AFPA media. Microscopic observations every hour to observe the growth of Aspergillus flavus from planting to growth. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, followed by LSD test with 95% CI. Research shows there is a decrease in pH caused by increased levels of star fruit juice. Concentrations of bilimbi fruit and soaking time can inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus in corn kernels. The optimal inhibitory potential was found at 15% v/v with a soaking time of 30 minutes.


concentration; soaking; bilimbi; Aspergillus

Full Text:



. D. Kumar, & A. N. Jhariya, Nutritional, medicinal and economical importance of corn: A mini review. Res J Pharm Sci, vol.2, no.7, pp.7-8. 2013.

Google Scholar

. K. S. Sandhu, N. Singh, & N. S. Malhi. Some properties of corn grains and their flours I: Physicochemical, functional and chapati-making properties of flours. Food Chemistry, vol.101, no.3, oo.938-946,2007.


. T. R. Shah, K. Prasad, & P. Kumar, "Maize—A potential source of human nutrition and health: A review". Cogent Food & Agriculture, vol. 2, no.1, 2016.


. D. C.Mehta, & F. F. Dias, Maize: Perspectives and applications in India. Starch‐Stärke, vol. 51, no.2‐3, pp. 52-57, 1999.


. A.Ehmann. N-(ϱ-coumaryl)-tryptamine and N-ferulyl tryptamine in kernels of Zea mays. Phytochemistry, vol.13, no.9 ,pp.1979-1983,1974. DOI:10.1016/0031-9422(74)85129-0]

J Y. Jiang, & T.Wang, Phytosterols in cereal by-products. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 82 no.6, pp. 439-444 2005.


D. A. Kopsell, G. R. Armel, T. C. Mueller, C. C. Sams, D. E. Deyton, J. S. McElroy, & D. E. Kopsell, “Increase in nutritionally important sweet corn kernel carotenoids following mesotrione and atrazine applications”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.57, pp. 6362–6368, 2009.


. P. R. Breadley, British herbal compendium (Vol. 2). Bournemouth: British Herbal Medicine Association, 1992.

Google Scholar

. R.H. Liu, “Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action”. Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, vol.12, pp. 3479–3485, 2004.


. W. Zhao, Y.Yin, Z.Yu, J.Liu, & F.Chen, “Comparison of anti-diabetic effects of polysaccharides from corn silk on normal and hyperglycemia rats”. Int J Biol Macromol vol.50, no.4, pp. 1133-1137,2012.


. J.Guo, T.Liu, L. Han, & Y.Liu, “The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism”. Nutr Metab (Lond), vol. 6, no.47, 2009.

DOI:10.1186/ 1743-7075-6-47

. G-Q, Wang, T, Xu, X-M.Bu, & B-Y.Liu. “Anti-inflammation effects of Corn Silk in a rat model of carrageenin-induced pleurisy”. Inflammation, vol.35, no.3 pp. 822-827,2012.


. J.Liu, C. Wang , Z. Wang, C. Zhang, S. Lu, J.Liu, “The antioxidant and free- radical scavenging activities of extract and fractions from corn silk (Zea mays L.) and related flavone glycosides”. Food Chem vol.126, pp.261-269,2011.


. A.Ehmann, “N-(ϱ-coumaryl)-tryptamine and N-ferulyl tryptamine in kernels of Zea mays”. Phytochemistry, vol.13. no.9, pp.1979-1983, 1974.


. A.C.S. Pinheiro, A.A. Pais, A.C.B. Tardivo, & M. Alves, “Effect of aqueous extract of corn silks (Zea mays L.) on the renal excretion of water and electrolytes and arterial pressure in anesthetized Wistar rats”. Rev bras plantas med; vol.13, no.4, pp.375-381, 2011.


. H.Guarama, & L.B. Bulleman, , “Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, Aflatoxigenic Fungi of Concern in Food and Feeds, A Review”, Journal of Food Protection, vol.58, no. 12, pp.1395–1404, 1995.


. M.T.Hedayati, A.C. Pasqualotto, P.A. Warn, P. Bowyer, & D.W. Denning. Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer. Microbiology vol.153, no.6, pp. 1677–1692, 2007.


A. Ngindu, B.K. Johnson, P.R. Kenya, & D.M.Ngira, “Ocheng. Outbreak of acute hepatitis caused by aflatoxin poisoning in Kenta”. Lancet vol.319, no.8285, pp.1346–1348, 1982.


. C.Probst, F. Schulthess, & P.J.Cotty. “Impact of Aspergillus section Flavi community structure on the development of lethal levels of aflatoxins in Kenyan maize (Zea mays)”. J. Appl. Microbiol. Vol.108, pp.600–610,2010. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04458.x

. K.A. Senske, J.R. Smith, S.J. Newman, L.B. Newman, & C.A.Kirk, “Aflatoxicosis in dogs and dealing with suspected contaminated commercial foods”. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. vol.228, no.11, pp. 1686-1691,2006.


. Y.Liu, & F. Wu. "Global burden of aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: a risk assessment." Environmental health perspectives vol.118, no.6, pp. 818-824,2010. 10.1289/ehp.0901388


. L.Lewis, M.Onsongo, H. Njapau, H. Schurz-Rogers, G. Luber, S. Kieszak, , & K. DeCock, "Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in eastern and central Kenya." Environmental health perspectives, vol.113, no.12, pp. 1763-1767,2005.


. Y.iujiang, A. Gary, Payne, C. William. Nierman,M. Masayuki, W.Joan W Bennett, C.C.Bruce, F.Jane, D.B.Robens, A.D. Ralph & E.C.Thomas “Aspergillus flavus genomics as a tool for studying the mechanism of aflatoxin formation”, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol.25, no.9, pp.1152-1157, 2005.


. J,Tian, B.Huang, X.Luo, H. Zeng, X.Ban, J.He, & Y.Wang, "The control of Aspergillus flavus with Cinnamomum jensenianum Hand.-Mazz essential oil and its potential use as a food preservative." Food Chemistry, vol.130, no. 3 pp520-527,2012.


. Gowda, N. K. S., Malathi, V., & Suganthi, R. U. . Effect of some chemical and herbal compounds on growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxin production. Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 116, no.3-4, pp.281-291, 2004.


. T. Indrawati, P.Bambang , & D.H Sukriya, Pembuatan kecap keong sawah dengan menggunakan enzim bromelin. Jakarta; Balai Pustaka, 1983.

Google Scholar

. F.G.I. Winarno, Pangan, Gizi, Teknologi dan konsumsi. Jakarta; Gramedia Pustaka, 1993.

Google Scholar

I.N.K. Putra, “The Potential Of Plant Extracts as Food Products Preservative” Media Ilmiah Teknologi Pangan, vol. 1,no. 1,pp. 81- 95, 2014.


. M.R. Adams, & M.O. Moss. Food Microbiology. Cambridge;Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000

Google Scholar

. J.L Mau, C.P. Chen, & P.C. Hsieh. "Antimicrobial effect of extracts from Chinese chive, cinnamon, and corni fructus." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.49, no.1, pp.183-188, 2001.


. I.A. Okarini, & I.B.N. Swacita, “Pengaruh konsentrasi temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza ROXB.) dan lama penyimpanan pada suhu 5 oC terhadap kualitas daging ayam broiler”. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, vol.2, no.2, pp.37-45, 1997.

Google Scholar

. M. Kivanc, & B. Kunduhoglu. "Antimicrobial activity of fresh plant juice on the growth of bacteria and yeasts." Journal of Qafqaz University.,pp. 27-35,1997.

Google Scholar

. D.T. Veličković, N.V. Ranđelović, & M.S. Ristić “Chemical composition and antimicrobial action of the ethanol extracts of Salvia pratensis L., Salvia glutinosa L. and Salvia aethiopis L”. J. Serb. Chem. Soc., vol.67, no.10, pp. 639-646, 2002,


. M.M. Cowan, "Plant product as antimicrobial agents". Clin. Microbiol. Rev., vol.12, no.4,pp. 564-582, 1999.

Google Scholar

. S. Justesen, M. Harndahl, K. Lamberth, L. L. B. Nielsen, & S.Buus, "Functional recombinant MHC class II molecules and high-throughput peptide-binding assays:. Immunome research, vol.5, no.1,2009.


. P. H. Chuang, C. W. Lee, J. Y. Chou, M. Murugan, B. J. Shieh, & H. M. Chen, " Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam". Bioresource technology, vol.98, no.1, pp.232-236,2007.


. A. R.Sosang, M. Mappiratu, R. & Ruslan " Karakterisasi Ekstrak Etanol Bunga Tanaman Tembelekan (Lantana Camara L.). KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia, vol. 2, no.2,2016.

Google Scholar

. I.Normah, & N. J. Anati, "Characteristics of threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicas) hydrolysate produced using bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) protease and alcalase". International Food Research Journal, vol.22 , no.6,2015.

">Google Scholar

. N, Widyastuti, "Aspek lingkungan sebagai faktor penentu keberhasilan budidaya jamur tiram (Pleurotus sp)." Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan, vol. 9, no.3, 2008.


. I.Levin, F. Forchiassin, & A.M. Ramos, "Copper induction of lignin-modifying enzymes in the white-rot fungus Trametes trogii." Mycologia, vol.94, no.3, pp. 377-383,2002.


. F. Xu, H.Chen, & Li Z., “Solid-State production of Lignin Peroxidase and Mangan feroxidase by Phanerochaeta chrysosporium using steam-exploded straw as substrate,” Bioresource Technology, vol.80, no 1, pp. 149-151.2001.



  • There are currently no refbacks.