Enhancing Quality of Guidance and Counseling in Vocational Schools: Testing the Effectiveness of Evaluation Instruments Based on the CIPP Model

Muhammad Andri Setiawan, Nina Permata Sari, Eklys Cheseda Makaria, Najwa Shabrina Dinanty, Gazali Rahman


This study assesses the CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) model's effectiveness in evaluating guidance and counseling programs within the Merdeka curriculum of Vocational High Schools. Collaborating with three experts—guidance and counseling specialists, educational technology experts, and practitioner teachers—the research employs assessment tests and pre-test/post-test questionnaires for 10 Guidance and Counseling Teachers at Vocational High School 3 Banjarmasin. Evaluation results, covering general, specific, and material aspects, show a high level of agreement among the three evaluators. General evaluation exhibits high reliability (ICC = 0.750), and thorough and material evaluations demonstrate high reliability with ICC values of 0.794 each. The trial of 10 Guidance and Counseling Teachers reveals a significant improvement in their evaluation skills after implementing the CIPP model. Average post-test results are notably higher than pre-test, highlighting the positive impact of the CIPP evaluation model on enhancing these skills. The research concludes that the CIPP evaluation model is reliable and consistent in measuring guidance and counseling program effectiveness in the Merdeka curriculum of Vocational High Schools. Empirical and theoretical support establishes a strong foundation for considering future implementation of the CIPP model in educational program evaluations. This model's application is anticipated to elevate the quality and relevance of educational programs, particularly in the context of guidance and counseling in Vocational High Schools, with potential practical and managerial benefits.


Counseling Program, Guidance and Counseling Teachers, CIPP Evaluation Model, Vocational High School, Expert Validation

Full Text:



Arjaya, I. B. A., & Suma, K. (2023). Problems of biology learning and evaluation analysis at the cipp model-based higher education level. Biosfer, 16(1), 152–167. https://doi.org/10.21009/biosferjpb.26835

Barber, C., Van Der Vleuten, C., Leppink, J., & Chahine, S. (2020). Social Accountability Frameworks and Their Implications for Medical Education and Program Evaluation: A Narrative Review. In Academic Medicine (Vol. 95, Issue 12, pp. 1945–1954). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003731

Bennett, E. E., & McWhorter, R. R. (2021). Virtual HRD’s Role in Crisis and the Post Covid-19 Professional Lifeworld: Accelerating Skills for Digital Transformation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 23(1), 5–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422320973288

Berman, S., Chaffee, S., & Sarmiento, J. (2018). The Practice Base For How We Learn Supporting Students’ Social, Emotional, and Academic Development Consensus Statements of Practice From the Council of Distinguished Educators National Commission on Social, Emotional, and Academic Development The Aspen Institute. www.aspenSEAD.org

Birgili, B., & Kırkıç, K. A. (2021). Evaluation of a Strategic Management Program: Context, Input, Process, Product Model as a Prototype for Business Academies. TEM Journal, 10(1), 204–214. https://doi.org/10.18421/TEM101-26

Bolton-King, R. S. (2022). Student mentoring to enhance graduates’ employability potential. Science and Justice, 62(6), 785–794. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scijus.2022.04.010

Darling-Hammond, L., & Cook-Harvey, C. M. (2018). Educating the Whole Child: Improving School Climate to Support Student Success. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/product/educating-whole-child.

Doufexi, T., & Pampouri, A. (2022). Evaluation of employees’ vocational training programmes and professional development: A case study in Greece. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education, 28(1), 49–72. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477971420979724

Finney, T. L. (2019). SPECIAL SECTION ON QUANTITATIVE PROGRAM EVALUATION: Confirmative Evaluation: New CIPP Evaluation Model. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 18(2), 2–24. https://doi.org/10.22237/jmasm/1598889893

Finney, T. L. (2020). Confirmative Evaluation - A New Cipp Model. https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/oa_dissertations/2485

Iqbal, Z., Anees, M., Khan, R., Wadood, A., & Malik, S. (2021). A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICACY OF THREE PROGRAM-EVALUATION MODELS –A REVIEW ON THEIR IMPLICATION IN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 9(3), 326–336. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9333

Kang, S. P., Chen, Y., Svihla, V., Gallup, A., Ferris, K., & Datye, A. K. (2022). Guiding change in higher education: an emergent, iterative application of Kotter’s change model. Studies in Higher Education, 47(2), 270–289. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2020.1741540

Kapur, R. (2018). Factors Influencing the Students Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in India Factors Influencing the Student’s Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in India. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324819919

Mujiyati, M., Mayasari, S., & Adiputra, S. (2020). A Comparison of Accountability Models in School Counseling Programs. Konselor, 9(3). https://doi.org/10.24036/0202093110561-0-00

O’Doherty, D., Dromey, M., Lougheed, J., Hannigan, A., Last, J., & McGrath, D. (2018). Barriers and solutions to online learning in medical education - An integrative review. In BMC Medical Education (Vol. 18, Issue 1). BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1240-0

Pujiastuti, P., Herwin, H., & Firdaus, F. M. (2021). Thematic learning during the pandemic: CIPP evaluation study. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 16(6), 2970–2980. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v16i6.6481

Rapanta, C., Botturi, L., Goodyear, P., Guàrdia, L., & Koole, M. (2020). Online University Teaching During and After the Covid-19 Crisis: Refocusing Teacher Presence and Learning Activity. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(3), 923–945. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-020-00155-y

Riyad, M., Abdullah, T., & Retnowati, R. (n.d.). Measuring the Professionality of School Teachers’ Performance: The Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) Model. In International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. www.ijicc.net (Vol. 12). www.ijicc.net

Sankaran, S., & Saad, N. (2022). Evaluating the Bachelor of Education Program Based on the Context, Input, Process, and Product Model. Frontiers in Education, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2022.924374

Shu, L., Yanbin, Z., Ka, C., Zakariah, S. H., Md Ali, N., & Sukardi, S. (2023). The Establishment of Career Development and Employment Guidance Course Evaluation System based on CIPP Model. Journal of Technology and Humanities, 4(1), 41–48. https://doi.org/10.53797/jthkkss.v4i1.5.2023

Strayhorn, T. L. (2018). College Students’ Sense of Belonging. In College Students’ Sense of Belonging. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315297293

Sugiyo. (2018). Evaluation Models of Guidance and Counseling Service Based CIPP in Senior High School.

van der Zanden, P. J. A. C., Denessen, E., Cillessen, A. H. N., & Meijer, P. C. (2018). Domains and predictors of first-year student success: A systematic review. In Educational Research Review (Vol. 23, pp. 57–77). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.01.001

Wyner, J. (2014). Excellent Community Colleges Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Community College Convening.


  • There are currently no refbacks.