Synthesis of Conjugated Copolymers Fluorene-based on Thieno-thiophene for Photovoltaic Cells

Mohd Sani Sarjadi, Yap Leong Khen, Mohd Hafiz Abd Majid, Sabrina Soloi


Organic solar cells have been receiving more attention in the recent years due to the cost bottleneck cap of inorganic solar cells and the increasing demand for more low-cost renewable power sources. In this work, poly(9,9-didodecylfluorene-alt-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene), P1 composed of alternating fluorene based co-polymer unit was successfully prepared by direct arylation polymerization. P1 composed of alternating fluorene unit as a donor unit and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene as a donor unit which is a donor-donor co-polymer. The colour and phase of P1 were observed. TLC showed positive result for P1. The surface morphology of P1 was identified by SEM. The structure of P1 was confirmed by using 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Functional group present of P1 were identified by using FTIR. The λmax and range of adsorption of  P1 were identified and band gap were calculated. The physical characteristics of P1 was compared and discussed. Based on the chemical characteristics, P1 has a high potential as organic photovoltaic material as UV-Vis shown a better adsorption range and lower band gap.



photovoltaic, fluorene based, direct arylation

Full Text:



N. Cahyani, D. T. F, Lumban Batu, & S. N. S. Gobalasingham and B. C. Thompson, “Direct arylation polymerization: A guide to optimal conditions for effective conjugated polymers,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 83, pp. 135 - 201, 2018.

doi: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2018.06.002

S. E. Tan and M. S. Sarjadi, “A Review of the Modification of PCDTBT Structure Used in the Polymeric Solar Cells,” J. Chem, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1 - 15, 2016.

Google Scholar

X. Liu, Y.Sun, B. B.Hsu, A. Lorbach, L. Qi, A. J. Heeger, & G. C.Bazan, , “Design and Properties of Intermediate-Sized Narrow Band-Gap Conjugated Molecules Relevant to Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 136, no. 15, pp. 5697 - 5708, 2014.

doi: 10.1021/ja413144u

S. Sharma, K. K. Jain, & A. Sharma, “Solar Cells: In Research and Applications: A Review.” Materials Sciences and Applications, vol. 6, pp. 1145 - 1155, 2015.

doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.612113

X. L. Wong, M. L. Rahman, & M. S. Sarjadi, “Benzodi-chalcogenophene-based Conjugated Polymers as Photovoltaic Materials.” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 12, pp. 6315 - 6339, 2017.

doi: 10.20964/2017.07.76

Y. J. Cheng, S. H.Yang, & C. S. Hsu, “Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers for Organic Solar Cell Applications. Chemical Reviews.” Chemical Reviews, vol. 109, no. 11, pp. 5868 - 5923, 2009.

doi: 10.1021/cr900182s

J. T. Chen and C. S. Hsu, “Conjugated polymer nanostructures for organic solar cell applications.” Polymer Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 12, pp 2707, 2011.

doi: 10.1039/C1PY00275A

K. Mertens, 2019. Photovoltaic: Fundamental, Technology and Practice. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK, pp. 16 - 17, 2019.

ISBN: 978-1-119-40133-9

M. Wakioka and F. Ozawa, “Highly Efficient Catalysts for Direct Arylation Polymerization (DArP).” Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1206 - 1216, 2018.

doi: 10.1002/ajoc.201800227

M. S. Sarjadi, S. E.Tan, X. L. Wong, F. H. Anuar, M. S.Sarkar, & M. L. Rahman, “Synthesis and characterization of unsymmetrically branched alkyl chains carbazole-based polymer.”AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2237, no. 020005, pp. 1 - 12, 2020.

doi: 10.1063/5.0005389

J. Zhao,Y. Li, G. Yang, K. Jiang, H. Lin, H. Ade, & H. Yan, “Efficient organic solar cells processed from hydrocarbon solvents.”Nature Energy, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 15027, 2016.

doi: 10.1063/5.0005389

S. Mekhilef, R. Saidur, & A. Safari, “A review on solar energy use in industries.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1777 -1790, 2011.

doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2010.12.018

S. W.Chang, H. Waters, J.Kettle, Z.R. Kuo, C.H. Li, C.Y. Yu, & M.Horie, “Pd-Catalysed Direct Arylation Polymerisation for Synthesis of Low-Bandgap Conjugated Polymers and Photovoltaic Performance.” Macromolecular Rapid Communications, vol. 33, no. 22, pp. 1927 - 1932, 2012.

doi: 10.1002/marc.201200368

M. Kaltschmitt, W. Streicher, & A. Wiese, “ Renewable Energy: Technology, Economics and Environment”. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, New York, pp. 1 - 271, 2007.

doi: 10.1007/3-540-70949-5

M. S. Sarjadi and A. Iraqi, “Synthesis of Carbazole Based Co-polymers Containing Thienothiophene and Benzothiadiazole Units in a Direct Arylation Scheme.” Polymer & polymer composite, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 703 - 710, 2016.

doi: 10.1177/096739111602400905

M. S. Sarjadi, Y. L. Khen, X. L. Wong, Z. Jamain and M. L. Rahman “Synthesis of Fluorene-Based Alternating Copolymers using Direct Arylation Polymerization”. Asian Journal of Chemistry. vol. 33(2). 393-398. 2021.

doi: 10.14233/ajchem.2021.23014


  • There are currently no refbacks.