ZnO Nanoparticles and Its Interaction With Chitosan : Profile Spectra and Their Activity Against Bacterial

Ahmad Fatoni, M. Arif Afrizal, Ade Arinia Rasyad, Nurlisa i Hidayat


The biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and synthesis of chitosan- ZnO nanoparticles were studied. The aims of this research were biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, synthesis of chitosan-ZnO nanoparticles, its characterization and, used as an antibacterial agent of Escherichia coli. ZnO nanoparticles were biosynthesized by reacting with ethanolic extract of guava seeds leaves (Psidium guajava L.) and zinc acetate dihydrate solution. Chitosan-ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the heating method. ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan-ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The suspension of chitosan-ZnO nanoparticles was used as an antibacterial agent with a paper disk method. The result showed that the Zn-O group at ZnO nanoparticles was detected at a wavenumber 615.29 and 673.16 cm-1  The crystallite size of ZnO nanoparticles was 1.43 nm. The wavenumber of 617-655 cm-1 is the Zn-O group at the structure of the chitosan-ZnO nanoparticle. The average of diameter inhibition zone of chitosan-ZnO nanoparticles (1:2) at concentration 0.25 and 0.5 % (w/v) to Escherichia coli was 15.7 ± 1.0 and 18.3 ± 0.4 mm respectively. 


ZnO; chitosan-ZnO nanoparticles; Escherichia coli

Full Text:



G. K. Weldegebrieal. “Synthesis method, antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles for azo dyes in wastewater treatment: A review”. Inorg. Chem. Commun. vol. 120 , no. 108140., 2020.

doi: 10.1016/j.inoche.2020.108140

S. Polarz, A. Roy, and M. Merz. ‘Chemical vapour synthesis of sizeselected zinc oxide nanoparticles’, Small. vol, 5, pp. 540–552, 2005,

doi: 10.1002/smll.200400085

Z. Hu, G. Oskam, and P. C. Searson., “ Influence of solvent on the growth of ZnO nanoparticles”, J.Colloid. Interface. Sci., vol. 263, pp.454–460, 2003.

doi: 10.1016/S0021-9797(03)00205-4

J. C. Hulteen, and C. R. Martin, “A general template based method for the preparation of nanomaterials”, J. Mater. Chem., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1075–1087, 1997.

doi: 10.1039/a700027h

Siswanto, N. T. Rochman and P. R. Akwalia. “Fabrication and characterization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle by sol-gel method”. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. vol. 853, no. 1. 012041, 2017.

doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/8531/012041

A.B. Moghaddam, T. Nazari, J. Badraghi, and M. Kazemzad, “Synthesis of ZnO nano¬particles and electrodeposition of polypyr¬role/ZnO nanocomposite film”, Int. J. Electro-chem. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 247–257, 2009.

Google Scholar

H. Chang, and M. H. Tsai, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles having prism shape by a novel gas condensation process”, Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., vol. 18, pp. 734–743, 2008.

Google Scholar

S. C. Singh, and R. Gopal, “Zinc nanoparticles in solution by laser ablation technique’, Bull. Mater. Sci., vol. 30, pp. 291–293, 2007.

doi: 10.1007/s12034-007-0048-z

P. B. Khoza, M. J. Moloto, and L. M. Sikhwivhilu, “The Effect of Solvents, Acetone,Water, and Ethanol, on the Morphological and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Prepared by Microwave”, J. Nanotechnol. vol. 2012, Article ID 195106, 6 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/195106

R. Dobrucka and J. Dugaszewska. “Biosynthesis and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles using Trifolium pratense flower extract”. Saudi J. Biol.Sci., vol. 23, pp. 517–523, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.05.016

Y.T. Prabhu, K.V. Rao, S. Sai and T. Pavani.” A facile biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles: A micro-structural and antibacterial activity investigation”. J.Saudi Chem. Soc. vol. 21, pp.180–185, 2017.

doi: 10.1016/j.jscs.2015.04.002

P. M. Rahman, V. M. Abdul Mujeeb, K. Muraleedharan, and S. K. Thomas, ” Chitosan/nano ZnO composite films: Enhanced mechanical, antimicrobial and dielectric properties.” Arab. J.Chem., vol.11, pp. 120–127, 2018.

doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.09.008

R. M. Nyffenegger, B. Craft, M. Shaaban, S. Gorer, G. Erley, and R.M. Penner., “A Hybrid Electrochemical/Chemical Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Optically Intrinsic Thin Films”, Chem. Mater. vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1120–1129, 1998.

doi: 10.1021/cm970718m

J. Singh, T. Dutta, K.H. Kim, M. Rawat, P. Samddar, and P. Kumar, P. “Green” synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: applications for environmental remediation”. J. Nanobiotechnology. vol. 16, no. 84, pp. 1-24, 2018,


J. Suresh, G. Pradheesh, V. Alexramani, M. Sundrarajan and S. I. Hong. “Green synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticle using insulin plant (Costus pictus D. Don) and investigation of its antimicrobial as well as anticancer activities, Adv. Nat.Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. vol. 9, no. 1, pp 015008, 2018.

doi: 10.1088/2043-6254/aaa6f1

S. K. Chaudhuri and L. Malodia. “Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Calotropis gigantea: characterization and its evaluation on tree seedling growth in nursery stage”. Appl. Nanosc. vol. 7, pp. 501–512, 2017

doi: 10.1007/s13204-017-0586-7

S. Vijayakumar, S. Mahadevan, P. Arulmozhi, S. Sriram, and P. K. Praseetha, “Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Atalantia monophylla leaf extracts: Characterization and antimicrobial analysis”, Mater. Sci.Semicond. Process. vol. 82, pp. 39–45, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.mssp.2018.03.017

R. K. Das, V. L. Pachapur, L. Lonappan, M. Naghdi, R. Pulicharla, S. Maiti and S.K. Brar. “Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles: plants, animals and microbial aspects. Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering”, vol. 2, no. 18, pp. 1-21, 2017.


N. Muhamad, N. A. Muhmed, M. M. Yusoff, and J. Gimbun, J. 2014. Influence of Solvent Polarity and Conditions on Extraction of Antioxidant, Flavonoids and Phenolic Content from Averrhoa bilimb. J.Food Sci.Eng. vol. 4, pp. 255-260.

doi: 10.17265/2159-5828/2014.05.006

S.K. Kim and N. Rajapakse. “Enzymatic production and biological activities of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS): a review”. Carbohydr. Polym. Vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 357–368. 2005 .

doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.08.012

N. A. A. Yusof, N.M. Zain and N. Pauzi. “Synthesis of chitosan / zinc oxide nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan via microwave heating”. Bull. Chem. React. Eng. Catal. Vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 450-458, 2019,

doi: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.3319.450-458

M.S. Benhabiles, H. Lounici, N. Drouiche, M. F. A. Goosen and N. Mameri. “Antibacterial activity of chitin, chitosan and its oligomers prepared from shrimp shell waste”. Food Hydrocoll. Vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 48-56, 2012.

doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.02.013

A. Fatoni, E. Munarsih, K. Asmadi and N. Hidayati. “Synthesis and characterization chitosan-ZnO nanoparticle and its application as antibacterial agent of Staphylococus aureus”. Sci.Technol. Indones. vol. 5, no. 1, pp.1-5, 2020,

doi: 10.26554/sti.2020.5.1.1-5

A. Fatoni, H. Hilma, A. A. Rasyad, S. Novriyanti, and N. Hidayati, “Biosintesis ZnO nanopartikel dari ekstrak air daun jambu biji (Psidium guajava L) dan ion Zn2+ serta interaksinya dengan kitosan sebagai antibakteri Escherichia coli”. J. Sains Farm. Klin. vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 151-157, 2020,

doi: 10.25077/jsfk.7.2.151-157.2020

H. Wu and J. Zhang. “Chitosan-based zinc oxide nanoparticle for enhanced anticancer effect in cervical cancer: A physicochemical and biological perspective”. Saudi Pharm. J. vol. 26, pp. 205–210, 2018.

doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.010

S.H.S. Dananjaya, R. S. Kumar, M. Yang, C. Nikapitiya, J. Lee, and M.De Zoysa. “Synthesis, characterization of ZnO-chitosan nanocomposites and evaluation of its antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans”. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. vol. 108, pp. 1281–1288, 2018,


H. M. M. Ibrahim. “Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using banana peel extract and their antimicrobial activity against representative microorganisms”.J.Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci.vol. 8, pp. 265-275, 2015.


M. Nilavukkarasi , S. Vijayakumar , and S. Prathipkumar. “Capparis zeylanica mediated bio-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles as antimicrobial, photocatalytic and anti-cancer applications”. Mater. Sci. Energy Technol. vol 3, pp. 335–343, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.mset.2019.12.004

I. Fatimah, R. Y. Pradita, and A. Nurfalinda. “Plant Extract Mediated of ZnO Nanoparticles by Using Ethanol Extract of Mimosa Pudica Leaves and Coffee Powder.” Procedia Eng. vol. 148, pp. 43 – 48, 2016.

doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.483

M. Nasrollahzadeh, S.S. Momeni and S. M. Sajadi, Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Plantago asiatica leaf extract and their application for the cyanation of aldehydes using K4Fe(CN)6. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 506, (2017), 471–477.

doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2017.07.072

A.C. Jayasuriya, A. Aryaei, and A. H. Jayatissa. “ZnO nanoparticles induced ef¬fects on nanomechanical behavior and cell vi¬ability of chitosan films”, Mater. Sci. Eng. C Mater. Biol. Appl. vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 3688-96. 2013

doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.04.057

Isnaeni, E. Hendradi, and N. Z. Zettira, “Inhibitory effect of roselle aqueous extracts-HPMC 6000 gel on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923”. Turk. J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 190-196, 2020.

doi: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2019.88709

L. Joseph, M. George, G. Singh, and P. Mathews. “Phytochemical investigation on various parts of Psidium guajava”. Ann. Plant. Scie. Vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1265-1268, 2016

doi: 10.21746/aps.2016.02.001

M. Sorbiun, S. M. Ebrahim, A. Ramazani and A. M. Malekzadeh. “Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts and evaluation of their antibacterial properties.” Nanochem. Res. vol. 3, no.1, pp; 1-16, 2018


D. Zhang, X. Ma, Y. Gu, H. Huang, and G. Zhang. “Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their potential applications to treat cancer”. Fron. Chem. Vol. 8, pp. 799. 2020.


S. A. Akintelu, A. S. Folorunso, F. A. Folorunso, and A. K. Oyebamiji. “Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles for biomedical application and environmental remediation”. Heliyon vol.6, pp.e04508, 2020.

doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04508

S. Kumari, P. Rath, A. S. H. Kumar, and T. N. Tiwari, “Extraction and characterization of chitin and chitosan from fishery waste by chemical method”. Environ. Technol. & Innov., vol. 3, pp.77–85, 2015.

doi: 10.1016/j.eti.2015.01.002

S. W. Balogun, O.O. James, Y. K. Sanusi, Y. K and • O. H. Olayinka. “Green synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles using bashful (Mimosa pudica) leaf extract: a precursor for organic electronics applications”. S. N. Appl. Sci. vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 504, 2020.

doi: 10.1007/s42452-020-2127-3

D. R. Boverhof, C. M. Bramante, J.H. Butala , S. F. Clancy , M. Lafranconi, J. West and S. C. Gordon. “Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations”. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. vol. 73, pp. 137-150, 2015

doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.06.001

N. A. Mohamed and M. M. Fahmy, “Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel cross-linked chitosan hydrogels”, Int.. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 13, pp. 11194-11209, 2012.

doi: 10.3390/ijms130911194

J. Santhoshkumar, S. V. Kumar, and S. Rajeshkumar, “Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant leaf extract against urinary tract infection pathogen”. Resource-Efficient Technologies., vol. 3, pp. 459–465, 2017.

doi: 10.1016/j.reffit.2017.05.001

S. Alamdari, M. S. Ghamsari, C. Lee, W. Han, H. H. Park, M. J. Tafreshi, H. Afarideh, and M. H. M. Ara, M. H. M. “Preparation and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Sambucus ebulus”, Appl. Sci., vol.10, pp. 3620, 2020.

doi: 10.3390/app10103620

M. M. AbdElhady, “Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Imparting Antimicrobial and UV Protection to Cotton Fabric”, Int. J. Carbohydr. Chem., vol. 2012, Article ID 840591, 6 pages, 2012.

doi: 10.1155/2012/840591

A. Farouk, S. Moussa, M. Ulbricht, and T. Textor.” ZnO Nanoparticles-Chitosan Composite as Antibacterial Finish for Textiles”. Int. J. Carbohydr. Chem. Vol. 2012,

doi: 10.1155/2012/693629

R. C. Goy, D. de Britto, and O.B. G. Assis. “A Review of the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan”. Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 241-247, 2009,

doi: 10.1590/S0104-14282009000300013

F. D. Halstead, M. Rauf, N. S. Moiemen, A. Bamford, C.M. Wearn, A.P. Fraise, et al. “The Antibacterial Activity of Acetic Acid against Biofilm- Producing Pathogens of Relevance to Burns Patients”. PLoS ONE. vol. 10, no. 9, pp. e0136190, 2015,

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136190


  • There are currently no refbacks.