Effect of Heating on the Pretreatment Process for Recycling Li-Ion Battery Cathode

Soraya Ulfa Muzayanha, Cornelius Satria Yudha, Luthfi Mufidatul Hasanah, Adrian Nur, Agus Purwanto


The use of Li-ion batteries has increased with the increasing of portable electronic media. Li-ion batteries have a life cycle hence a recycling process is needed in order to reduce the potential hazard of waste while increasing the economic value of unused battery material, especially its cathode active material. This study used Lithium Nickel Cobalt Oxide (NCA) cathode scrap to be regenerated which NCA material has high energy density and high capacity. The pretreatment process is one of the determinants in the subsequent recycling process. In this study, the effect of heating on the pretreatment process was carried out with variation temperatures of 500-8000C to obtain powder which will be recycled. The combination process of the leaching and co-precipitation was used to regenerate the cathode active material. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) was performed to determine leaching efficiency using 4M H2SO4 at 400C for 3 hours. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that NCA material has been successfully regenerated which the diffraction peaks of NCA material was in accordance with JCPDS standards. The morphology of NCA material was tested using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical testing uses a cylindrical battery at 2.7-4.2 Volt which the initial specific discharge capacity of the power is 62.13 mAh / g.


Inorganic; NCA; cathode material; Li-ion battery; recycle

Full Text:



N. Nitta, F. Wu, J. T. Lee, and G. Yushin, “Li-ion battery materials : present and future,” Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 252–264, 2015.

A. Purwanto, C. S. Yudha, U. Ubaidillah, H. Widiyandari, and T. Ogi, “NCA cathode material : synthesis methods and performance enhancement efforts NCA cathode material : synthesis methods and performance enhancement efforts,” 2018.

C. Pillot, “Lithium ion battery raw material Supply & demand 2016-2025,” 2017.

X. Zeng, J. Li, and L. Liu, “Solving spent lithium-ion battery problems in China: Opportunities and challenges,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 52, pp. 1759–1767, 2015.

X. Zheng et al., “A Mini-Review on Metal Recycling from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries,” Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 361–370, 2018.

X. Chen and T. Zhou, “Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media,” Waste Manag. Res., vol. 32 (11), no. 11, pp. 1083–1093, 2014.

M. Vera, A. Schippers, and W. Sand, “Progress in bioleaching: Fundamentals and mechanisms of bacterial metal sulfide oxidation-part A,” Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 97, no. 17, pp. 7529–7541, 2013.

M. Joulié, R. Laucournet, and E. Billy, “Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of high value metals from spent lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide based lithium-ion batteries,” J. Power Sources, vol. 247, pp. 551–555, 2014.

A. A. Nayl, R. A. Elkhashab, S. M. Badawy, and M. A. El-Khateeb, “Acid leaching of mixed spent Li-ion batteries,” Arab. J. Chem., vol. 10, pp. S3632–S3639, 2017.

L. Li, Y. Bian, X. Zhang, Y. Guan, E. Fan, F. Wu, and R. Chen, “Process for recycling mixed-cathode materials from spent lithium-ion batteries and kinetics of leaching,” vol. 71, pp. 362–371, 2018.

R. C. Wang, Y. C. Lin, and S. H. Wu, “A novel recovery process of metal values from the cathode active materials of the lithium-ion secondary batteries,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 99, no. 3–4, pp. 194–201, 2009.

D. A. Ferreira, L. M. Z. Prados, D. Majuste, and M. B. Mansur, “Hydrometallurgical separation of aluminium, cobalt, copper and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries,” J. Power Sources, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 238–246, 2009.

S. M. Shin, N. H. Kim, J. S. Sohn, D. H. Yang, and Y. H. Kim, “Development of a metal recovery process from Li-ion battery wastes,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 79, no. 3–4, pp. 172–181, 2005.

S. G. Zhu, W. Z. He, G. M. Li, X. Zhou, X. J. Zhang, and J. W. Huang, “Recovery of Co and Li from spent lithium-ion batteries by combination method of acid leaching and chemical precipitation,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China (English Ed., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 2274–2281, 2012.

S. U. Muzayanha, C. S. Yudha, A. Nur, H. Widiyandari, H. Haerudin, H. Nilasary, F. Fathoni, and A. Purwanto, “A Fast Metals Recovery Methods for the Synthesis of Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Material from Cathode Waste,” Metals (Basel)., vol. 9, no. 615, pp. 1-17, 2019.

J. Seo and J. Lee, “Fast growth of the precursor particles of Li (Ni0.8Co0.16Al0.04)O2 via a carbonate co-precipitation route and its electrochemical performance,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 694, pp. 703–709, 2017.

H. Meng, P. Zhou, Z. Zhang, Z. Tao, and J. Chen, “Preparation and characterization of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0. 05O2 with high cyclingstability by using AlO 2- as Al source,” Ceram. Int., no. December, pp. 1–8, 2016.

I. P. Lestari, A. R. Nurohmah, M. N. Ikhsanudin, C. S. Yudha, H. Widiyandari, and A. Purwanto, “Synthesis And Characterization Of Precipitation Method With Green Chelating Agents,” in 2018 5th International Conference on Electric Vehicular Technology (ICEVT), 2018, pp. 53–56.

K. D. R. Ekawati, A. P. Sholikah, C. S. Yudha, H. Widiyandari, and A. Purwanto, “Comparative Study of NCA Cathode Material Synthesis Methods towards Their Structure Characteristics,” in 2018 5th International Conference on Electric Vehicular Technology (ICEVT), 2018, pp. 57–61.

Y. Yang, G. Huang, S. Xu, Y. He, and X. Liu, “Thermal treatment process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries,” Hydrometallurgy, 2015.

K. He, Z. Ruan, X. Teng, and Y. Zhu, “Facile synthesis and electrochemical properties of spherical LiNi0.85-xCo0.15AlxO2 with sodium aluminate via co-precipitation,” Mater. Res. Bull., vol. 90, pp. 131–137, 2017.

P. Kalyani and N. Kalaiselvi, “Various aspects of LiNiO2 chemistry: A review,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 689–703, 2005.

C. Song, W. Wang, H. Peng, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Improving the Electrochemical Performance of by LiAlO 2 Surface Modification,” Appl. Sci., 2018.


  • There are currently no refbacks.