Improving Observing Skills of High School Students through Guided Inquiry Model

Shafila Sahnaz, Harlita Harlita, Murni Ramli


   Observation skill is one of the fundamental science process skills should mastered by students in the primary level. In fact, due to the lack of experiences of observation, high school students in the observed class showed the low level of observations skills. This study was three cycles-collaborative action research aims to improve the observation skills of high school students in biology through the implementation of guided inquiry learning integrated with a series of observation activities. The participants were 30 students of grade 11 of one public high school in Karanganyar, Indonesia. Six indicators of observation skills were used to assess the performance of students. In the pre-cycle stage, students showed relatively moderate performance on two aspects, e.g., identifying the differences and similarities of objects (45.83), and using of multiple senses to observe (45.83). But, they performed low in uses the apparatus correctly (4.17). On the skills of classifying the differences or the similarities, they scored 25, and for collecting relevant data they got 29.17 in average. After three iterative cycles, all indicators have increased significantly.  

Full Text:



Akinbobola, A. O., & Afolabi, F. (2010). Analysis of Science Process Skills in West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Physics, 4(1), 32–47.

Aktamis, H., & Ergin, O. (2008). The Effect of Scientific Process Skills Education on Students' Scientific Creativity, Science Attitudes, and Academic Achievements. Asia Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 9(1), 21. Retrieved from

Ambarsari, W., & Santosa, S. (2013). Penerapan Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing Terhadap Keterampilan Proses Sains Dasar Pada Pelajaran Biologi Siswa Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 7 Surakarta. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 5(1), 81–95.

Banchi, H., & Bell, R. (2008). Many Levels of Inquiry. Science and Children. 1(1), 1-29.

Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2015). Vygotskian and Post-Vygotskian Views on Children’s Play. American Journal of Play, 7(3), 371–388. Retrieved from

Byers, S. (2015). 2015 Experienced Teacher Action Research Pilot Project. ISTTA, (August 2014).

Chin, C., & Chia, L. G. (2006). Problem-based learning: Using ill-structured problems in biology project work. Science Education, 90(1), 44–67.

Chin, C., & Osborne, J. (2010). Students’ questions and discursive interaction: Their impact on argumentation during collaborative group discussions in science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(7), 883–908.

Danielson, C. (2012). Observing Classroom Practice. Educational Leadership, 70(3), 32–37.

Dimyati, & Mudjiono. (2009). Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Domuracki, K., Wong, A., Olivieri, L., & Grierson, L. E. M. (2015). The impacts of observing flawed and flawless demonstrations on clinical skill learning. Medical Education, 49(2), 186–192.

Friesen, S., & Scott, D. (2013). Inquiry-Based Learning : A Review of the Research Literature. Alberta Ministry of Education, (June), 32. Retrieved from

Harlen, W. (2014). Helping children’s development of inquiry skills. Inquiry in Primary Science Education, 1, 5–19.

Jack, G. U. (2013). The Influence of Identified Student and School Variables on Students’ Science Process Skills Acquisition. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(5), 16–23.

Karamustafaoğlu, S. (2011). Improving the Science Process Skills Ability of Science Student Teachers. Eurasian Journal of Physics and Chemistry Education, 3(1), 26–38.

Kemmis, S and R.Mc Taggart (2005). The Action Research Planner. Victoria Deakin University.

Ketpichainarong, W., Panijpan, B., & Ruenwongsa, P. (2010). Enhanced learning of biotechnology students by an inquiry-based cellulase laboratory. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education V O L, 5(2), 169–187.

Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K., & Caspari, A. K. (2007). Guided Inquiry - Learning in the 21st century. London: Libraries Unlimited.

Lee, V. S. (2012). Inspiration and intellect: Significant learning in musical forms and analysis. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, (119), 35–41.

McNeill, K. L., & Krajcik, J. (2008). Inquiry and Scientific Explanations: Helping Students Use Evidence and Reasoning. Science as Inquiry in the Secondary Setting, 121–134.

Nurochmah, T. (2008). Pengaruh Pendekatan Inkuiri terhadap peningkatan Keterampilan Proses Sains Siswa dalam Proses Pembelajaran IPA Biologi pada Materi Pokok Sistem Pencernaan Manusia (STUDI. Yogyakarta)

Ozgelen, S. (2012). Students’ science process skills within a cognitive domain framework. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 8(4), 283–292.

Rankin, L. (2006). Assessing for Learning Facilitator’s Guide Workshop II : Assessing Process Skills a Professional Development Curriculum from the Institute for Inquiry.

Riyadi, I. P., Prayitno, B. A., & Marjono. (2015). Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing (Guided Inquiry) pada Materi Sistem Koordinasi untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Proses Sains pada Siswa Kelas XI IPA 3 SMA Batik 2 Surakarta Tahun Pelajaran 2013/2014. Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 7, 108–118.

Rustaman, N. (2003). Kemampuan Proses Ilmiah dalam Pembelajaran Sains. Bandung: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia Press.

Sheeba, M. N. (2013). An Anatomy of Science Process Skills In The Light Of the Challenges to Realize Science Instruction Leading To Global Excellence in Education. Education Confab, 2(4), 108–123.

Sidiq, Y., Prayitno, B. A., Karyanto, P., & Sugiharto, B. (2012). Pengaruh Strategi Pembelajaran Instad Terhadap Keterampilan Proses Sains. Prosiding Seminar Biologi, 9(1), 305–309. Retrieved from

Şimşek, P., & Kabapinar, F. (2010). The effects of inquiry-based learning on students’ conceptual understanding of matter, scientific process skills and science attitudes. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1190–1194. j.sbspro.2010.03.170

Stone, E. M. (2014). Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment. CBE Life Sciences Education, 13, 90–101.

Sutman, F. X., Schmuckler, J. S., & Woodfield, J. D. (2008). The Science Quest Using Inquiry/Discovery to Enhance Student Learning. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Zaini, H. (2009). Strategi Pembelajaran Aktif. Seminar Lokakarya Nasional Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS, 1–9.

Zion, M., & Mendelovici, R. (2012). Moving from structured to open inquiry: Challenges and limits. Science Education International, 23(4), 383–399.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Shafila Sahnaz, Harlita Harlita, Murni Ramli

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


International Journal of Pedagogy and Teacher Education

Print ISSN: 2597-7792
Online ISSN: 2549-8525
Published by: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret
Ir. Sutami Street, No. 36A, Surakarta, Jawa Tengah Indonesia