Improvement of Selectivity and Antifouling Properties of Chitosan-modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Protein Filtration

Reza Zatadini, Aldita Fatchul Ni’mah, Yudi Setiawan, Agung Lucky Pradita, Desy Vita Pratiwi, Dina Syakirina, Mayzy Vanesia Insani, Widyan Muhammad Naufal, Wulida Rayhani, Ozi Adi Saputra, Edi Pramono


Protein with high purity is currently a valuable commercial commodity, prized for its high value and application in specialized functions. PVDF-based membrane technology has found widespread use in protein purification processes. However, the issue of fouling on the membrane surface frequently hampers the performance of PVDF membranes. The present study aims to enhance PVDF membranes' selectivity and antifouling properties through chitosan modification, thereby optimizing protein filtration. PVDF and PVDF/Chitosan membranes were fabricated using the phase inversion technique, followed by a comprehensive characterization of their surface properties, thermal attributes, and performance in bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein filtration. The collected data revealed notable increases in membrane hydrophilicity, porosity, and pure water flux due to the incorporation of chitosan. The membrane protein rejection capabilities were significantly enhanced to levels exceeding 90% with the introduction of 0.5% chitosan. Moreover, as the chitosan concentration increased, the membrane exhibited superior antifouling characteristics, with the 0.5% chitosan concentration yielding the highest Flux Recovery Ratio (FRR) value of 85.35%. Considering the significant improvement selectivity and antifouling properties in the combined system, the chitosan-modified PVDF membrane holds substantial promise in protein purification applications.


albumin; bovine serum; chitosan; membrane technology; protein filtration; PVDF.

Full Text:



Abriyanto, H., 2021. 'Hydrophilic Modification of PVDF Membrane : a Review', Journal of Membranes and Materials, 1(1), 1–9. Available at: <>.

Al-Gharabli, S., Flanc, Z., Pianka, K., Terzyk, A. P., Kujawski, W., and Kujawa, J., 2023. Porcupine Quills-Like-Structures Containing Smart PVDF/Chitosan Hybrids for Antifouling Membrane Applications and Removal of Hazardous VOCs. Chemical Engineering Journal, 452(2), 139281.

Almualla, M., Mosa, M., and Sattar, M., 2021. Chemical Modification and Characterization of Chitosan for Pharmaceutical Applications. Egyptian Journal of Chemistry, 64(7), 3635–3649.

An, Z., Xu, R., Dai, F., Xue, G., He, X., Zhao, Y., and Chen, L., 2017. PVDF/PVDF-g-PACMO blend hollow fiber membranes for hemodialysis: preparation, characterization, and performance. RSC Advances, 7(43), 26593–26600.

Ashok K, S., Srinivasan, G., and Govindaradjane, S., 2019. Development of a New Blended Polyethersulfone Membrane For Dye Removal From Synthetic Wastewater, Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management, 12, 100238.

Azizati, Z., 2019. Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Kitosan Kulit Udang Galah. Walisongo Journal of Chemistry, 2(1), 10–16.

Boributh, S., Chanachai, A., and Jiraratananon, R., 2009. Modification of PVDF Membrane By Chitosan Solution For Reducing Protein Fouling, Journal of Membrane Science, 342(1–2), 97–104.

Borjigin, M., Eskridge, C., Niamat, R., Strouse, B., Bialk, P., and Kmiec, E. 2013. Electrospun Fiber Membranes Enable Proliferation of Genetically Modified Cells. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8, 855–864.

Chong, J. Y., and Wang, R., 2019. From micro to nano: Polyamide thin film on microfiltration ceramic tubular membranes for nanofiltration. Journal of Membrane Science, 587, 117161.

Dong, H., Xiao, K., Tang, X., Zhang, Z., Dai, J., Long, R., and Liao, W., 2016. Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethane (PU)/Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Blending Membrane. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(8), 3405–3413.

Elizalde, C. N. B., Al-Gharabli, S., Kujawa, J., Mavukkandy, M., Hasan, S. W., and Arafat, H. A., 2018. Fabrication of Blend Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Chitosan Membranes for Enhanced Flux and Fouling Resistance. Separation and Purification Technology, 190, 68–76.

Elsayeda, F. S., Abdulrahim, N. A., and Eladham, K. A., 2022. Studying of Thermal and Shielding Properties of PVDF (PolyVinyliDene Fluoride) Pipes Used in Aqueous Solution Sector. Journal of Material Sciences and Manufacturing Research, 3(4), 1–6.

Ezugbe, E. O., and Rathilal, S., 2020. Membrane Technologies in Wastewater Treatment: A Review. Membranes, 10(5), 1–25.

Fahrina, A., Yusuf, M., Muchtar, S., Fitriani, F., Mulyati, S., Aprilia, S., Rosnelly, C. M., Bilad, M. R., Ismail, A. F., Takagi, R., Matsuyama, H., and Arahman, N., 2021. Development of Anti-Microbial Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane Using Bio-Based Ginger Extract-Silica Nanoparticles (GE-Sinps) For Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Filtration. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 125, 323–331.

Fathanah, U., Machdar, I., Riza, M., Arahman, N., Lubis, M. R., and Yusuf, M., 2020. The Improvement of Hydrophilic Property of Polyethersulfone Membrane with Chitosan as Additive. Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia and Lingkungan, 15(1), 53–61.

Fernandes-Queiroz, M., Melo, K., Sabry, D., Sassaki, G., and Rocha, H., 2014. Does the Use of Chitosan Contribute to Oxalate Kidney Stone Formation? Marine Drugs, 13(1), 141–158.

Gifuni, I., Lavenant, L., Pruvost, J., and Masse, A., 2020. Recovery of Microalgal Protein by Three-Steps Membrane Filtration: Advancements and Feasibility. Algal Research, 51, 102082.

Gregorio, R., 2006. Determination of the α, β, and γ Crystalline Phases of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Films Prepared at Different Conditions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 100(4), 3272–3279.

Hassanzadeh, P., Gharbani, P., Derakhshanfard, F., and Memar Maher, B., 2021. Preparation and Characterization of PVDF/g-C3N4/Chitosan Polymeric Membrane for the Removal of Direct Blue 14 Dye. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 29(11), 3693–3702.

Huang, J., Zhang, K., Wang, K., Xie, Z., Ladewig, B., and Wang, H., 2012. Fabrication of Polyethersulfone-Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite Ultrafiltration Membranes With Antifouling Properties. Journal of Membrane Science, 423–424, 362–370.

Jaleh, B., Gavary, N., Fakhri, P., Muensit, N., and Taheri, S., 2015. Characteristics of PVDF Membranes Irradiated by Electron Beam. Membranes, 5(1), 1–10.

Japranata, H. H., 2016. Separasi Protein dengan Membran Ultrafiltrasi, Teknik Kimia, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Available at: < DENGAN_MEMBRAN_ULTRAFILTRASI> (accessed on July, 2023)

Junaidi, A. B., and Rahmadani, A., 2008. Efek Regenerasi Larutan Naoh Pada Deasetilasi Kitin Terhadap Derajat Deasetilasi Kitosan, 2(1), 36–43.

Kang, G. dong and Cao, Y. ming (2014) 'Application and Modification Of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) Membranes - A review', Journal of Membrane Science, 463, pp. 145–165.

Khabibi, K., Siswanta, D. and Mudasir, M., 2021. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Hemocompatibility of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Chitosan/Carboxymethylcellulose as Hemodialysis Membrane, Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 21(5), 1120–1131.

Khajouei, M., Jahanshahi, M., and Peyravi, M., 2018. Biofouling Mitigation of TFC Membrane by In-Situ Grafting of PANI/Cu Couple Nanoparticle. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 85, 237–247.

Khan, T. A., Peh, K. K. and Ch’ng, H. S., 2002. Reporting Degree of Deacetylation Values of Chitosan: The Influence of Analytical Methods. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(3), 205–212.

Khumalo, N. P., Vilakati, G. D., Mhlanga, S. D., Kuvarega, A. T., Mamba, B. B., Li, J., and Dlamini, D. S., 2019. Dual-Functional Ultrafiltration Nano-Enabled PSf/PVA Membrane For The Removal of Congo Red Dye. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 31, 100878.

Kou, S. (Gabriel), Peters, L. M., and Mucalo, M. R., 2021. Chitosan: A Review of Sources and Preparation Methods. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 169, 85–94.

Liu, C., Wang, W., Li, Y., Cui, F., Xie, C., Zhu, L., and Shan, B., 2019. PMWCNT/PVDF Ultrafiltration Membranes With Enhanced Antifouling Properties Intensified by Electric Field for Efficient Blood Purification. Journal of Membrane Science, 576, 48–58.

Liu, F., Hashim, N. A., Liu, Y., Abed, M. R. M., and Li, K., 2011. Progress in the production and modification of PVDF membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 375(1), 1–27.

Liu, J., Shen, X., Zhao, Y., and Chen, L., 2013. Acryloylmorpholine-Grafted PVDF Membrane with Improved Protein Fouling Resistance. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 52(51), 18392–18400.

Lusiana, R. A., Putri Protoningtyas, W., Ricky Wijaya, A., Siswanta, D., Mudasir, M., and Juari Santosa, S., 2017. Chitosan-Tripoly Phosphate (CS-TPP) Synthesis Through Cross-linking Process: the Effect of Concentration Towards Membrane Mechanical Characteristic and Urea Permeation. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 33(6), 2913–2919.

Lusiana, R. A., Sangkota, V. D. A., Sasongko, N. A., Gunawan, G., Wijaya, A. R., Santosa, S. J., Siswanta, D., Mudasir, M., Abidin, M. N. Z., Mansur, S., and Othman, M. H. D., 2020. Permeability Improvement of Polyethersulfone-Polietylene Glycol (PEG-PES) Flat Sheet Type Membranes by Tripolyphosphate-Crosslinked Chitosan (TPP-CS) Coating. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 152, 633–644.

Lv, J., Zhang, G., Zhang, H., Zhao, C., and Yang, F., 2018. Improvement of Antifouling Performances for Modified PVDF Ultrafiltration Membrane With Hydrophilic Cellulose Nanocrystal. Applied Surface Science, 440, 1091–1100.

Munim, S. A., Saddique, M. T., Raza, Z. A., and Majeed, M. I., 2020. Fabrication of Cellulose-Mediated Chitosan Adsorbent Beads and Their Surface Chemical Characterization. Polymer Bulletin, 77(1), 183–196.

Nawi, M. N. I., Chean, H. M., Shamsuddin, N., Bilad, M. R., Narkkun, T., Faungnawakij, K., and Khan, A. L., 2020. Development of Hydrophilic PVDF Membrane Using Vapour Induced Phase Separation Method for Produced Water Treatment. Membranes, 10(6), 1–17.

Nunes, S. P., Culfaz-Emecen, P. Z., Ramon, G. Z., Visser, T., Koops, G. H., Jin, W., and Ulbricht, M., 2020. Thinking the future of membranes: Perspectives for Advanced and New Membrane Materials and Manufacturing Processes. Journal of Membrane Science, 598, 117761.

Pishnamazi, M., Koushkbaghi, S., Hosseini, S. S., Darabi, M., Yousefi, A., and Irani, M., 2020. Metal Organic Framework Nanoparticles Loaded- PVDF/Chitosan Nanofibrous Ultrafiltration Membranes for The Removal of BSA Protein and Cr(VI) Ions. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 317, 113934.

Pramono, E., Zakaria, M. A., Fridiasari, K. F., Ndruru, S. T. C. L., Bagaskara, M., Mustofa, R. E., Sejati, G. P. W., Purnawan, C., and Saputra, O. A., 2022. Cellulose Derived from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches as Filler on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Based Membrane for Water Containing Humic Acid Treatment. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 17, 100744.

Rahimpour, A., Jahanshahi, M., Rajaeian, B., and Rahimnejad, M., 2011. TiO2 Entrapped Nano-Composite PVDF/SPES Membranes: Preparation, Characterization, Antifouling And Antibacterial Properties. Desalination, 278(1–3), 343–353.

Shahrabi, S. S., Barzin, J., and Shokrollahi, P., 2018. Blood Cell Separation by Novel PET/PVP Blend Electrospun Membranes. Polymer Testing, 66, 94–104.

Silitonga, R. S., Widiastuti, N., Jaafar, J., Ismail, A. F., Abidin, M. N. Z., Azelee, I. W., and Naidu, M., 2018. The Modification of PVDF Membrane via Crosslinking with Chitosan and Glutaraldehyde as the Crosslinking Agent. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 18(1), 1–6.

Thakur, P., Kool, A., Bagchi, B., Das, S., and Nandy, P., 2014. Enhancement of β Phase Crystallization and Dielectric Behavior of Kaolinite/Halloysite Modified Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Thin Films. Applied Clay Science, 99, 149–159.

Trung, T. S., Thein-Han, W. W., Qui, N. T., Ng, C.-H., and Stevens, W. F., 2006. Functional Characteristics of Shrimp Chitosan and Its Membranes as Affected by The Degree of Deacetylation. Bioresource Technology, 97(4), 659–663.

Tzaneva, D., Simitchiev, A., Petkova, N., Nenov, V., Stoyanova, A., and Denev, P., 2017. Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Chitosan And Its Rheological Behaviour In Pharmaceutical And Cosmetic Emulsions. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 7(10), 70–78.

Yusuf, A., Sodiq, A., Giwa, A., Eke, J., Pikuda, O., de Luca, G., di Salvo, J. L., and Chakraborty, S., 2020. A Review Of Emerging Trends In Membrane Science And Technology For Sustainable Water Treatment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 266, 121867.

Zhao, Y., Yang, W., Zhou, Y., Chen, Y., Cao, X., Yang, Y., Xu, J., and Jiang, Y., 2016. Effect Of Crystalline Phase On The Dielectric And Energy Storage Properties Of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride). Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 27(7), 7280–7286.

Zheng, L., Wang, J., Yu, D., Zhang, Y., and Wei, Y., 2018. Preparation of PVDF-CTFE Hydrophobic Membrane by Non-solvent Induced Phase Inversion: Relation Between Polymorphism and Phase Inversion. Journal of Membrane Science, 550, 480–491.


  • There are currently no refbacks.