GC-MS Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Five Syzygium Species Leaves

Nur Amalia Choironi, Sunarto Sunarto, Esti Dyah Utami, Muhamad Salman Fareza


The essential oil can inhibit pathogenic bacterial activities, which can be developed to be a natural preservative for food. This research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oils from five species Syzygium on Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium. The research results show that five Syzygium sp. Essential oils have moderate antibacterial properties with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 250 ‒ 500 μg/mL. S. polyanthum essential oils have the highest antibacterial activity than the rest species on B. cereus at 250 μg/mL. Meanwhile, the essential oil of S. polycephalum also showed the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC value of 250 μg/mL against L. monocytogenes. The chemical component analysis using GC-MS shows the main constituents farnesol, nerolidol, and n-decanal, presenting the antibacterial effect.


antibacterial activity; essential oil; GC-MS analysis; syzygium.

Full Text:



Abebe, E., Getachew, G. and Meselu, A., 2020. Review on Major Food-borne Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens. Journal of Tropical Medicine 20, 1-17. DOI: 10.1155/2020/4674235.

Abreu, A.C., Andrew, J.M. and Manuel S., 2012. Plants as Sources of New Antimicrobials and Resistance-Modifying Agents. Natural Product Reports 29, 1007-1021. DOI: 10.1039/c2np20035j.

Adamczak, A., O’zarowski, M., and Karpin´ski, T.M., 2020. Antibacterial Activity of Some Flavonoids and Organic Acids Widely Distributed in Plants. Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(1), 109. DOI: 10.3390/jcm9010109.

Arumugam, B., Palanisamy, U. D., Chua, K. H. and Kuppusamy, U. R., 2016. Potential Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Myricetin Derivatives from Syzygium malaccense. Journal of Functional Food 22, 325-336. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2016.01.038.

Bintsis, T., 2017. Review: Food-borne Pathogent. AIMS Mocrobiology 3(3), 529-563. DOI: 10.3934/microbiol.2017.3.529.

Chandrasekaran, M. and Venkatesalu, V., 2004. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Syzygium jambolanum seeds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 9, 105-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.012.

Chouhan, S., Kanika, S. and Sanjay, G., 2017. Review: Antimicrobial Activity of Some Essential Oils-present Status and Future Perspectives. Medicines 4(58), 1-21. DOI: 10.3390/medicines4030058.

CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute), 2017. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 27th Ed., CLSI Supplement M100, Wayne PA, USA 37, 4(1).

Dhifi, W., Sana, B., Sabrine, J., Nada, B. and Wissem, M., 2016. Essential Oils’ Chemical Characterization and Investigation of Some Biological Activities: A Critical Review. Medicines 3(25), 1-16. DOI: 10.3390/medicines3040025.

Djoukeng, J. D., Abou-Mansour, E., Tabacchi, R., Tapondjou, A. L., Bouda, H. and Lontsi, D., 2005. Antibacterial Tritrpenes from Syzygium guineense (Myrtaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 101, 283-286. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.008.

Faleiro, M.L. and Miguel, M.G., 2013. Essential Oils and Their Components, 65-93. Elsevier Inc.

Fareza, M.S., Utami E.D., Gita E.M., Permatasari, V.R., Telaumbanua T. and Choironi N.A., 2019. Perbandingan Kandungan Senyawa Kimia dan Aktivitas Antibakteri Terhadap MRSA Beberapa Minyak Atsiri Daun Salam (Syzygium polyanthum). Alchemy: Jurnal Penellitian Kimia 15(2), 302-314. DOI: 10.20961/alchemy.15.2.25736.302-314.

Goyal, R., Singh, N.P., Kaur, M. and Talwar, V., 2007. Antimicrobial Resistance in Invasive and Colonising Streptococcus pneumonia in North India. Indian Journal Medical Microbiology 25(3), 256-259. DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.34770.

Hamad, A., Djalil, A.D., Saputri, E.Y., Yulianingsih, N. and Hartanti, D., 2020. Bay Leaf Essential Oils Inhibited Microbial Growth and Exerted Potential Preservation Effects on Tofu. Advances in Food Science, Sustainable Agriculture and Agroindustrial Engineering 3(2), 46-52. DOI: 10.21776/ub.afssaae.2020.003.02.2.

Hamad, A., Mahardika, M.G.P., Yuliani I. and Hartanti, D., 2017. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activities of Essnetial Oils of Syzygium polyanthum and Syzygium aromaticum. Rasayan Journal of Chemistry 10(2), 564-569. DOI: 10.7324/RJC.2017.1021693.

Hu, Q., Zhou, M. and Wei, S., 2018. Progress on The Antimicrobial Activity Research of Clove Oil and Eugenol in The Food Antisepsis Field. Journal of Food Science 83(6), 1476-1483. DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14180.

Inoue, Y., Shiraishi, A., Hada, T., Hirose, K., Hamashima, H. and Shimada, J., 2004. The Antibacterial Effects of Terpene Alcohols on Staphylococcus aureus and Their Mode of Action. FEMS Microbiology 237, 325-331. DOI: 10.1016/j.femsle.2004.06.049.

Jena, S., Ray, A., Sahoo, A., Das, P.D., Dash, K.T., Kar, S.K., Nayak, S. and Pamda, P.C., 2021. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Leaf Essential Oil of Syzygiumm myrtifolium from Eastern India. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 24(3), 582-595. DOI:10.1080/0972060X.2021.1947897.

Jesseberger, N., Dietrich, R., Granum, P.E. and Erwin, M., 2020. Review: The Bacillus cerreus Food Infection. Toxins 12(701), 1-37. DOI:10.3390/toxins12110701.

Kusuma, I. W., Kuspradini, H., Arung, E. K., Aryani, F., Min, Y., Kim, J. and Kim, Y., 2011. Biological Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Tree Indonesian Medicinal Plants, Murraya keonigii, Syzigium polyanthum and Zingiber purpurea. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 4(1), 75-79. DOI: 10.1016/S2005-2901(11)60010-1.

Manaharan, S., Ming C.H. and Palanisamy U.D., 2013. Syzygium aqueum Leaf Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Enhances Pre-adipocyte Differentiatio and 2-nnbdg Uptake in 3t3-l1 Cells. Food Chemistry 136(2), 354-363. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.056.

Mohamed, A.A., Ali, S.I. and Farouk K.E., 2013. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini leaves. Plos One 8(4), e60629. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060269.

Pandey, A. and Singh, P., 2011. Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) with Metal Ion Effect Against Food Borne Pathogens. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 1(2), 69-80.

Raj, G., Pradeep, N.S., George, V., and Sethuraman, 2016. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Syzigium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston Leaf oil. Indian Journal of Chemistry 55B, 747-751.

Selles, S.M.A., Kooudri, M., Belhamiti, B.T. and Amrane, A.A., 2020. Chemical Composition, In-vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 13, 1-7. DOI:10.1007/s11694-020-00482-5.

Shafi, P.M., Rosamma, M.K., Jamil, K. and Reddy, P.S., 2002. Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium travancoricum Leaf Essential Oils. Fitoterapia 73, 414-416. DOI: 10.1016/s0367-326x(02)00131-4.

Sharma, R., Kishore, N. Hussein, A. and Lall, N., 2013. Antibacterial and Antiinflammatory Effects of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston) and Isolated Compounds on Acne vulgaris, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13, 292-302. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-292.

Sidney, M. T., Siyabonga, S. J. and Kotze, B. A., 2015. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium cordatum Fruit-pulp and Seed Extracts Against Bacterial Strains Implicated in Gastrointestinal Tract Infections. African Journal of Biotechnology 14(16), 1387-1392. DOI:10.5897/AJB2014.14285.

Simirgiotis, M.J., Adachi, S., To, S., Yang, H., Reynertson, K. A., Basile, M. J., Gil, R. R., Weinstein, I. B. and Kennelly, E. J., 2008. Cytotoxic Chalcones and Antioxidants from The Fruits of Syzygium samarangense (Wax Jambu). Food Chemistry 107, 813–819. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.086.

Sobeh, M., Braun, M.S., Krstin, S., Youssef, F.S., Ashour, M.L. and Wink, M., 2016. Chemical Profiling of The Essential Oils of Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium samarangense and Eugenia uniflora and Their Discrimination Using Chemometric Analysis. Chemistry and Biodiversity 13(11), 1537-1550. DOI:10.1002/cbdv.201600089.

Yang, S., Yusoff, K., Ajat, M., Wee, C., Yap, P., Lim, S., and Lai, K., 2021. Combinatorial Antimicrobial Efficacy and Mechanism of Linalool Against Clinically Relevant Klebsiella pneumonia. Frontiers in Microbiology 2, 1-10. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.635016.


  • There are currently no refbacks.