Identifikasi Mekanisme Molekuler Senyawa Ftalosianina sebagai Kandidat Photosensitizer pada Terapi Fotodinamika secara In Silico

Taufik Muhammad Fakih, Anggi Arumsari, Mentari Luthfika Dewi, Nurfadillah Hazar, Tanisa Maghfira Syarza


Bakteri patogen seperti Pseudomonas aeruginosa membutuhkan zat besi untuk dapat mempertahankan kelangsungan hidupnya. HasAp merupakan suatu protein yang dihasilkan oleh bakteri patogen sebagai sumber zat besi tersebut. Protein HasAp selanjutnya akan berikatan dengan protein membran luar yaitu HasR untuk dapat meneruskan sinyal pada sel bakteri. Penyerapan zat besi pada bakteri patogen ini dapat menjadi strategi pengembangan metode terapi dalam mengendalikan dan mencegah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, salah satunya dengan memanfaatkan ftalosianina sebagai photosensitizer pada terapi fotodinamika. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi, mengevaluasi, dan mengeksplorasi mekanisme aksi senyawa ftalosianina terhadap protein HasAp, serta pengaruhnya pada bagian sisi aktif HasR dengan menggunakan studi in silico. Studi ligan-protein docking dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak MGLTools 1.5.6 yang dilengkapi dengan AutoDock 4.2 untuk mengamati afinitas dan interaksi molekuler antara molekul senyawa Fe-ftalosianina (Fe-Pc) dan Ga-ftalosianina (Ga-Pc) terhadap makromolekul protein HasAp. Selanjutnya, studi protein-protein docking dilakukan terhadap sistem kompleks ligan-protein untuk mengamati pengaruhnya terhadap area pengikatan dari makromolekul protein HasR dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak PatchDock. Berdasarkan hasil ligan-protein docking, senyawa Fe-ftalosianina (Fe-Pc) memiliki afinitas paling baik terhadap kedua protein HasAp, yaitu dengan nilai masing-masing -68,45 kJ/mol dan -69,16 kJ/mol. Kemudian, hasil studi protein-protein docking antara kompleks senyawa Fe-ftalosianina (Fe-Pc) dan protein HasAp terhadap protein HasR memiliki nilai Atomic Contact Energy (ACE) positif, yaitu 556,56 kJ/mol. Perbedaan struktur molekul senyawa ftalosianina terbukti mampu mempengaruhi mekanisme aksi terhadap protein target, sehingga hasil studi ini dapat menjadi acuan dalam mendesain struktur senyawa ftalosianina sebagai kandidat photosensitizer dalam terapi fotodinamika.

Identification of the Molecular Mechanism of Phthalocyanine Compounds as Photosensitizer Candidates in Photodynamic Therapy by In Silico. Pathogenic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa need iron elements to be able to maintain their survival. HasAp is a protein produced by pathogenic bacteria as a source of iron. The HasAp protein will then bind to the outer membrane protein, namely HasR, to be able to forward signals in bacterial cells. Absorption of iron in these pathogenic bacteria can be a strategy for developing therapeutic methods in controlling and preventing infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of which is by using phthalocyanine as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy. This study aims to identify, evaluate, and explore the mechanism of action of phthalocyanine compounds against HasAp proteins, and their effects on the active site of HasR through in silico studies. Ligand-protein docking studies were performed using MGLTools 1.5.6 with AutoDock 4.2 to observe the affinity and molecular interactions between molecules of Fe-phthalocyanine (Fe-Pc) and Ga-phthalocyanine (Ga-Pc) against HasAp protein macromolecules. Furthermore, a protein-protein docking study of the ligand-protein complexes system was simulated to observe its effect on the binding area of the HasR protein macromolecules using PatchDock. Based on the ligand-protein docking results, Fe-phthalocyanine (Fe-Pc) compounds have the best affinity for both HasAp proteins, with a binding energy value of -68.45 kJ/mol and -69.16 kJ/mol, respectively. The protein-protein docking study results between the complex compound Fe-phthalocyanine (Fe-Pc) and HasAp protein against HasR protein have a positive Atomic Contact Energy (ACE) value, with an ACE value of 556.56 kJ/mol. Differences in the molecular structure of phthalocyanine compounds are proven to be able to influence the mechanism of action against the target protein. Therefore, the results of this study can be a reference in designing the structure of phthalocyanine compounds as photosensitizer candidates in photodynamic therapy.


photosensitizer; ftalosianina; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; studi in silico; terapi fotodinamika.

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