Analisis Multivariat Dari Faktor Lingkungan yang Berpengaruh terhadap Struktur Komunitas Amfibi di Pulau Lombok

Muhammad Syazali, Agil Al Idrus, Gito Hadiprayitno



The study of the effect of environment factors on amphibians there is no it in Lombok Island. This study aimed to analyze the environment factors that most contribute to the community structure of amphibians on the island of Lombok. Survey was conducted at 10 locations/points scattered on the island of Lombok. Both data of environment factors and community structure were collected on the square of 5000 m2 at each of the locations in the period from March to July 2016. The environment factors that the analyze including air temperature, water temperature, humidity, altitude, canopy, tree species richness, tilt, river length, width of the river and left-right width of the river to crawl. Amphibian community structure consists of species richness, density, species diversity, species evenness and dominance species. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that environment factors that effect to the factor of the community can be divided into four components, namely component 1 (high effect), component 2 (middle effect), component 3 and component 4 (lower effect). Component 1 consists of humidity, canopy and tree species richness factor. Component 2 consists of air temperature, water temperature and altitude. 3 and 4 consist of a length of the river, the river width, the width of the river and tilt left and right.

Key words: environment factors, structure of amphibian community, Lombok Island

Full Text:



Annawati, & Paserang, A.P. (2009). Keanekaragaman jenis fauna amphibia di Taman Nasional Lore Lindu [Electronic version]. Biocelebes, 3, 59-63.

Ariza, Y.S., Dewi, B.S., & Darmawan, A. (2014). Keanekaragaman Jenis Amfibi (Ordo Anura) pada beberapa tipe habitat di youth camp desa hurun kecamatan padang cermin Kabupaten Pesawaran [Electronic version]. Jurnal Sylva Lestari, 2, 21-30.

Ashley, E.P., & Robinson, J.T. (1996). Road Mortality of Amphibians, Reptiles & Other Wildlife on the Long Point Causeway, Lake Erie, Ontario [Electronic version]. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 110, 403-412.

Beebee, T.J.C. (1983). Habitat selection by amphibians across in agriculture land-heatland transect in Britain [Electronic version]. Biology Conservation, 27, 111-124.

Beebee, T.J.C. (1985). Discriminant analysis of amphibian habitat determinant in South-East England [Electronic version]. Amphibian-Reptilia, 6, 35-43.

Biavati, G.M., Wiederhecker, H.C., & Colli, G.R. (2004). Diet of Epipedobates flavopictus (Anura: Dendrobatidae) in a neotropical savanna [Electronic version]. Journal of Herpetology, 38, 510-518.

Brattstrom, B.H. (1963). A Preliminary review of thermal requirements of amphibians [Electronic version]. Ecology, 44, 238-255.

Bower, J.E., & Zar, J.H. (1997). Field and Laboratory Methods for General Ecology. Brown: Iowa.

Brown, H.A. (1969). The Heat Resistance of Some Anuran Tadpoles (Hylidae & Pelobatidae) [Electronic version]. Copeia, 1969: 138-147.

Burne, M.R., & Griffin, C.R. (2005). Habitat associations of pool-breeding amphibians in Eastern Massachusetts, USA [Electronic version]. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 13, 247-259.

Calhoun, A.J.K., Walls, T.E., Stockwell, S.S., & McCollough, M. (2003). Evaluating vernal pools as a basis for conservation strategies: a maine case study [Electronic version]. Wetlands, 23, 70–81.

Churchill, T.A., & Storey, K.B. (2009). Dehydration tolerance in wood frog: a new perspective on development of amphibian freeze tolerance [Electronic version]. Am. J. Physiol. Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol., 265, 1324-1332.

Collins, J. P. & Storfer, A. (2003). Global amphibian declines: sorting the hypotheses [Electronic version]. Divers. Distrib., 9, 89 – 98.

Cooke, A.S. (1975). Spawn site selection and colony size of the frog (Rana temporaria) and the toad (Bufo bufo) [Electronic version]. Journal of Zoology, 175, 29-38.

Cortes-Gomez, A.M., Casto-Herrera, F., & Urbina-Cardona, J.N. (2013). Small changes in vegetation structure create great changes in amphibians ensembles in the colombian pacific rainforest [Electronic version]. Tropical Rainforest Science, 6, 749-769.

Daly, J.W., Myers, C.W., & Whittaker, N. (1987). Further classification of skin alkaloids from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), with a general survey of toxic/noxious substances in the amphibian [Electronic version]. Toxicon, 25, 1023-1095.

Daszak, P., Cunningham, A.A., & Hyatt, A.D., (2003). Infectious disease and amphibian population declines [Electronic version]. Diversity and Distributions, 9, 141–150.

Delfino, G., Alvarez, B.B., Brizzi, R., & Cespedez, J.A. (1998). Serous cutaneous glands of Argentine phyllomedusa Wagler 1830 (Anura Hylidae): secretory polymorphism and adaptive plasticity [Electronic version]. Tropical Zoology, 11, 333-351.

deMaynadier, P.G., & Hunter Jr.M.L., (1999). Forest canopy closure and juvenile emigration by pool-breeding amphibians in maine [Electronic version]. Journal of Wildlife Management, 63, 441–450.

Dickman, M. (1968). The effect of grazing by tadpoles on the structure of a periphyton community [Electronic version]. Ecological Society of America, 49, 1188-1190.

Egan, R.S., & Paton, P.W.C. (2004). Within-pond parameters affecting oviposition by wood frogs and spotted salamanders [Electronic version]. Wetlands, 24, 1–13.

Fahrig, L., Pedlar, J.H., Pope, S.E., Taylor, P.D., & Wegner, J.F. (1995). Effect of the road traffic on amphibian density [Electronic version]. Biological Conservation, 74, 177-182.

Ficetola, G.F., Rondinini, C., Bonardi, A., Baisero, D., and Padoa-Schippa, E. (2014). Habitat availability for amphibians & extinction threat: a global analysis. Diversity & Distribution, 2014, 1-10.

Gillespie, G., Howard, S., Stroud, J.T., UI-Hasanah, A., Campling, M., Lardner, B., Scroggie, M.P., Kusrini, M. (2015). Responses of tropical forest herpetofauna to moderate anthropogenic disturbance & effect of natural habitat variation in Sulawesi, Indonesia [Electronic version]. Biological Conservation, 192, 161-173.

Hammer, A.J., & McDonnell, M.J. (2008). Amphibian ecology and conservation in the urbanising world: a review [Electronic version]. Biological Conservation, 141, 2432-2449.

Hawley, T.J. (2010). Influence of forest cover on tadpole vital rates in two tropical treefrogs [Electronic version]. Herpetoglogical Conservation and Biology, 5, 233-240.

Heinen, J.T. (1992). Comparisons of the leaf litter herpetofauna in abandoned cacao plantations and primary rain forest in costa rica: some implication for faunal restoration [Electronic version]. Biotropica, 24, 431-439.

Heyer, W.R., Donnelly, M.A., McDiarmid, R.W., Hayek, L.C., & Foster, M.S. (1994). Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity-Standar Methods for Amphibians. Smithhsonian Institution Press: Washington DC.

Hirschfeld, M., & Rodel, M.O. (2011). The diet of the african tiger frog, Hoplobatrachus occipitalis, in Northern Benin [Electronic version]. Salamandra, 47, 125-132.

Huang, C.Y., & Hou, P.C.L. (2004). Density and diversity of litter amphibians in a Mansoon Forest of Southern Taiwan [Electronic version]. Zoological Studies, 43, 795-802.

Iskandar, D.T., Boeadi, & Sancoyo, M. (1996). Limnonectes kadarsani (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae), a new frog from the Nusa Tenggara Islands [Electronic version]. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 44, 21-28.

Iskandar, D.T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Pusat penelitian dan Pengembangan Biologi LIPI: Jakarta.

Izza, Q., dan Kurniawan, N. (2014). eksplorasi jenis-jenis amfibi di Kawasan OWA Cangar dan Air Terjun Watu Ondo, Gunung Welirang, Tahura R.Soerjo [Electronic version]. Jurnal Biotropika, 2, 103-108.

Kupferberg, S. (1997). Facilitation of periphyton production by tadpole grazing: functional differences between species [Electronic version]. Freshwater Biology, 37, 427-439.

Kurniati, H., dan Hamidy, A. (2014). Karakteristik suara kclompok kodok microhylidae bertubuh kccil asal Bali (Anura: Microhylidae) [Electronic version]. Jurnal Biologi Indonesia, 10, 159-167.

Kusrini, M.D., Endarwin, W., Ul-Hasanah, A., dan Yazid M. (2007). Metode Pengamatan Herpetofauna di Taman Nasional Bantimurung Bulusaraung, Sulawesi Selatan. Modul Pelatihan. Konservasi Sumberdaya Hutan dan Ekowisata, Fakultas Kehutanan Institut Pertanian Bogor: Bogor

Kusrini, M.D., Skerratt, L.F., Garland, S., Berger, L., & Endarwin, W. (2008). Chytridiomycosis in frogs of Mount Gede Pangrango, Indonesia [Electronic version]. Diseases of Aquatic Organism, 82, 187-194.

Legendre, P., & Legendre, L. (1998). Numerical Ecology. Elsevier Science B.V.: Amsterdam.

Lieberman, S.S. (1986). Ecology of the leaf litter herpetofauna of a neotropical rainforest: La Selva Costa Rica [Electronic version]. Acta Zoologica Mexicana, 15, 1-71.

Mader, H.J. (1984). Animal habitat isolation by road and agriculture fields [Electronic version]. Biological Conservation, 29, 81-96.

Manik, T.K., Rosadi, R.B., & Karyanto, A. (2012). Evaluasi metode Penman-Monteith dalam menduga laju evaporasi standar (ET0) di dataran rendah Propinsi Lampung, Indonesia [Electronic version]. Jurnal Agroteknologi, 26, 121-128.

Marshall, E., & Grigg, G. (1980). Lack of metabolic acclimation to different thermal histories by tadpoles of Limnodynastes peroni (Anura: Leptodactylidae) [Electronic version]. Physiological Zoology, 53, 1-7.

Martin, L.J., Rainford, S., & Blossey, B. (2015). Effects of plant litter diversity, species, origin & traits on larval toad performance [Electronic version]. Oikos, 124, 871-879.

Mistar. (2003). Panduan Lapangan Amfibi Kawasan Ekosistem Leuser. The Gibbon Foundation dan PILI-NGO Movement. Bogor

Mujiharjo, S. (2002). Perbandingan keeratan dan bentuk hubungan evapotranspirasi (ETp) potensial dengan etp bulanan [Electronic version]. Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 4, 42-48.

Muths, E., Corn, P.S., Pessier, A.P., & Green, D.E., (2003). Evidence for disease-related amphibian decline in Colorado [Electronic version]. Biological Conservation, 110, 357–365.

Novia, Sanjaya, M., & Gusman, D. (2015). Distribusi vertikal Anura di Gunung Seblat Kabupaten Lebong, Bengkulu. Prosiding Semirata 2015 bidang MIPA BKS-PTN Barat. Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak.

Odum, E.P. (1971). Fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders: Philadelpia

Parker, G.E. (1967). The Influence of temperature and thyroxin on oxygen consumption in Rana pipiens tadpoles [Electronic version]. Copeia, 1967, 610-616.

Paul, M.J., & Meyer, J.L., (2001). Streams in the urban landscape [Electronic version]. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, 333-365.

Pavignano, I., Giacoma, C., & Castellano, S. (1990). A multivariate analysis of amphibian habitat determinants in North Western Italy [Electronic version]. Amphibian-Reptilia, 11, 311-324.

Provete, D.B., Goncalves-Souza, T., Garey, M.V., Martins, I.A., & Rossa-Feres, D. De C. (2014). Broad-scale spatial patterns of canopy cover and pond morphology affect the structure of a neotropical amphibian metacommunity. Hidrobiologia, 7, 1-11.

Rosa, I., Canavero, A., Maneyro, R., Naya, D.E., & Camargo, A. (2002). Diet of four sympatric anura species in a temperate environment [Electronic version]. Biol. Sol. Zool., 13, 12-20.

Rowe, C.L., & Dunson, W.A. (1995). Impacts of hydroperiod on growth & survival of larval amphibians in temporary ponds of central Pennsylvania, USA [Electronic version]. Oecologia, 102, 397–403.

Seehousen, O. (2004). Hybridization and adaptive radiation [Electronic version]. Ecology and Evolution, 19, 198-207.

Shannon, C.E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication [Electronic version]. The Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379-423.

Skelly, D.K., Freidenburg, L.K., & Kiesecker, J.M. (2002). Forest canopy and the performance of larval amphibians [Electronic version]. Ecology, 83, 983-992.

Skidds, D. E., Golet, F.C., Paton, P.W.C., & Mitchell, J.C. (2007). Habitat correlates of reproductive effort in wood frogs and spotted salamanders in urbanizing watersheds [Electronic version]. Journal of Herpetology, 14, 439–450.

Strijbosth, H. (1979). Habitat selection of amphibians during their aquatic phase [Electronic version]. Oikos, 33, 363-372.

Toledo, R.C., & Jared, C. (1993). Cutaneous adaptations to water balance in amphibians [Electronic version]. Component Biochemical Physiology, 105, 593-608.

Trombulak, S.C., & Frissell, C.A. (2000). Review of ecological effect of roads on terrestrial & aquatic communities [Electronic version]. Conservation Biology, 14, 18-30.

Tumlison, E., & Trauth, S.E. (2006). A novel facultative mutualistic relationship between bufonid tadpoles and falgellated green algae [Electronic version]. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 1, 51-55.

Wanda, I.F., Novarino, W., & Tjong, D.H. (2012). Jenis-jenis Anura (Amphibia) di Hutan Harapan, Jambi [Electronic version]. Jurnal Biologi Universitas Andalas, 1, 99-107.

Yani, A., Said, S., & Erianto. (2015). Keanekaragaman jenis amfibi ordo Anura di Kawasan Hutan Lindung Gunung Semahung Kecamatan Sengah Temila Kabupaten Landak Kalimantan Barat [Electronic version]. Jurnal Hutan Lestari, 3, 15-20.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Bioedukasi: Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi

BIOEDUKASI: Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi

Print p-ISSN: 1693-265X
Online ISSN: 2549-0605
Published by: Department of Biology Education,Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta