Sefriani .


In the last five years, the number of investors who suit against host state in the international arbitration forum increased significantly. Almost all lawsuits used fair and equitable treatment (FET) standard which has been violated by the host state. Most of international investment agreements including those that were made by Indonesia contain FET standard clauses. However, there are no definitions related to this standard. This condition potentially raises a very wide interpretation of the standard. The problem formulations in this article are how the history of FET is, where its position in international investment law is and what elements of FET standard are. The results show that the FET standard has existed since Havana Charter followed by various FCN, BIT and other international investment agreements. FET standard can be categorized as customary international, legally binding on all countries regardless their national law. Although there is no universal approval regarding the scope of FET standard, the writings which have been published and the arbitral tribunal decision mentions that those elements are legitimate expectation; due process; denial of justice; rule of law; non-discrimination; transparency; consistency, good faith, and reasonableness. 

Full Text:





Diehl, Alexandra, 2012, The core standard of international investor protection : fair and equitable treatment, Alphen aan den rijn, wolter Kluwer

Dolzer, Rudolf dan Christoph schreuer , 2012, principle on international investment law, 2nd edition, oxford university press

Dumberry, Patrick, 2016, the formation and identification of rule of customary of rule of international law in international investment law, Cambridge university press

Klager, Roland , 2011, Fair and equitable treatment in international investment law, Cambridge university press

Rubins, Noah D. & & N. Stephan Kinsella,2005, International Investment, Political Risk and Dispute Resolution : Apractitioner’s Guide, Oceana Publications

Sornarajah, Muthucmaraswamy, 2004, The International Law on Foreign Investment, Cambridge Univ. Press


Adede, A.O., “A Fresh Look at the Meaning of the Doctrine of Denial of Justice under International Law”, 14 THE CAN. Y.B. INT'L L. 72, 91 (1976).

Choudhury, Barnali, 2005, Evolution or Devolution: Defining Fair and Equitable Treatment in International Investment , Law, 6 J. World Inv. & Trade

Dolzer, Rudolf , 2005, fair and Equitable treatment: a key standard in investment treaty, 39 Int'l Law. 87

Fry, James D. ; Odysseas G. Repousis, 2016, “Towards a new World For Investor -State Arbitration Through Transparancy,” , 48 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 795

Dagbjort Hauksdottir, the fair and Equitable treatment standard in international investment agreement, thesis master of Law, Haskollin Reykjavik

Dumberry, Patrick, “The Practice of States as Evidence of Custom: An Analysis of Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard Clauses in States’ Foreign Investment Laws”, McGill Journal of Dispute Resolution, VOL 2 (2015-2016)

Haeri, Hussein, 2011, A Tale of Two Standards: 'Fair and Equitable Treatment' and the Minimum Standard in International Law, Arbitration International, Volume 27 Issue 1

J. Vandevelde, Kenneth , 2010,” A Unified Theory of Fair and Equitable Treatment”, 43 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol.

Kalicki, Jean & Suzanne Medeiros, 20017, Fair, Equitable and Ambiguous: What is Fair and Equitable Treatment in International Investment Law 22 ICSID Rev. - Foreign Inv. L.J. 24

Loewen Group, Inc. v. United States, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/ 98/3, Award (June 25, 2003), 42 I.L.M. 811.

Pinto-León, Ignacio, 2006, Fair and Equitable Treatment under International Law: Analzsing the Interpretation of the NAFTA article 1105.1 by NAFTA chapter 11 tribunal, 15-WTR Currents: Int'l Trade L.J. 3

Roman Picherack, J. , 2008, The Expanding Scope of the Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard: Have Recent Tribunals Gone Too Far? 9 J. World Inv. & Trade 255

Schreuer, Christopher 2005, fair and equitable treatment in arbitral practice, the journal of world investment and trade, vol 6

Schreuer, 2005, Fair and Equitable Treatment in Arbitral Practice, 6 J. World Inv. & Trade 357

Wisner, Robert , “The Modern View of the Fair and Equitable Treatmnet standard in the Review of Regulatory action by state”, 20-AUT Int'l L. Practicum 129, Autum 2007, hlm. 129

W Schill; Stephan , 2006; Fair and equitable treatment under investment treaties as an embodiment the rule of law, IILJ working paper 2006/6, Global administrative law series , NYU Law school

Vasciannie, Stephen, “The Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard in International Investment Law and Practice”, 70 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L. 99

Artikel dari website

Indonesia for Global Justice , “ Catatan Dari Sengketa Investasi & Perdagangan Internasional Dari Churchill Mining Hingga Kasus Impor Di WTO Di Era Proteksionism, diakses treakhir 24 desember 2017 di http://igj.or.id/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Akhir-dari-sengketa-Perjanjian-Internasional.pdf

Matthew Coleman, Helen Aldridge, Thomas Innes, 2015, “Investor-State Arbitration and "Fair and Equitable" Treatment, diakes 30 januari 2018 di https://www.steptoe.com/publications-10464.html

Olatokunbo Lad-Ojomo, What is the distinction between The Fair and Equitable Treatment standard and Minimum Standard of Treatment under customary international law, paper, University of Dundee, diakses 2 pebruari di http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Thesis, skripsi

Dagbjort Hauksdottir, 2014, the fair and Equitable treatment standard in international investment agreement, thesis master of Law, Haskollin Reykjavik

Dokumen :

agreement between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and The Govermnet of Australia Concerning The promotion and protection of Investment

Agreement between the government of republic of Indonesia and the government of The United Kingdom of great Britain and northern Ireland for the promotion and protection of investment

Award on Respondent's Preliminary Objections to Jurisdiction and Admissibility of the Claims, He Sham Talaat M.Al Al Warraq vs Republic of Indonesia, 21106/2012

Azinian v. United Mexican States, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/97/2, Award dated 1 Nov. 1999, 39 I.L.M. 537 (2000).

Genin v. Estonia, ICSID Case No. ARB/99/2, Award (June 25, 2001), 17 ICSID Rev. – Foreign Inv. L.J. 395 (200

ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/00/3, Award, P 98 (Apr. 30, 2004), 43 I.L.M. 967.

Noble Ventures, Inc. v. Romania, ICSID Case No. ARB/01/11, Award (Oct 12, 2005), available at http://ita.law.uvic.ca/ documents/Noble.pdf.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Draft Convention on the Protection of Foreign Property, Oct. 12, 1967, 7 I.L.M. 117, 119

Parkerings-Compagniet AS v. Republic of Lith., ICSID Case No. ARB/05/8, Award (Sept. 11, 2007), available at http://ita.law.uvic.ca/documents/Pakerings.pdf.

Persetujuan antara Pemerintah republic Indonesia dan Pemerintah Republik India mengenai peningkatan dan Perlindungan atas penanaman Modal

Rafat Ali Rizv vs republic of Indonesia, (ICSID Case No. ARB/11/13)

Saluka Invs. BV v. Czech Republic, Partial Award (Perm. Ct. Arb. Mar. 17, 2006), dapat diakses di http://ita.law.uvic.ca/documents/Saluka-PartialawardFinal.pdf.

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, Oct. 29, 1954, U.S.-F.R.G., 273 U.N.T.S. 4.

Waste Mgmt., Inc. v. United Mexican States, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/00/3, Award (Apr. 30, 2004), 43 I.L.M. 967..


  • There are currently no refbacks.