Yuli Widiana


Virtual communication gains popularity along with the rapid development of information technology. In a cultural context, cultural norms are employed in virtual communication. The lack of physical contact in virtual communication makes netizens utilize particular features in digital platforms to replace physical contact in performing politeness. This study explores the strategies of Javanese netizens to perform Javanese politeness maxims in virtual phatic communication. The data were taken from five WhatsApp Groups (WAG) of Javanese aged between 20s to 40s. 142 conversation texts containing phatic talks in WAG were collected by observation method. The conversational texts and virtual icons were transcribed for contextual analysis. The result shows that Javanese netizens utilized the maxims of Kurmat (Respect), Tepa Selira (Tolerance), Andhap Asor (Humility), and Empan Papan (Self-Awareness) as politeness strategies in virtual phatic communication. The tolerance maxim is the most frequently used to support each other. The maxim of humility is the least used. Javanese politeness maxims are camaraderie devices to establish social rapport in cyberpragmatics context. The employment of Javanese maxims is significant strategies to avoid conflict and the Face Threatening Act (FTA). Indeed, Javanese politeness maxims are essential in creating harmony in virtual communication.


Cyberpragmatics Phatic Politeness Javanese Communication

Full Text:



Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gunarwan, A. (2007). Pragmatik: Teori dan Kajian Nusantara. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Atma Jaya. Holmes, J. (2013). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (4th ed.). London: Routledge. Kreidler, C. W. (1998). Introducing English Semantics. Hove: Psychology Press. Leech, G. (1983). Principles of Pragmatics. New York: Longman. Malinowski, B. (1923). The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages. In C. K. Ogden & I. A. Richards (Eds.), The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and the Science of Symbolism (pp. 296–336). London: K. Paul, Trend, Trubner. Nuryantiningsih, F., & Pandanwangi, W. D. (2018). Politeness and Impoliteness in Javanese Speech Levels. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 166, 383–387. Rahardi, R. K. (2020). Konteks dalam perspektif cyberpragmatics. Linguistik Indonesia, 38(2), 151–163. Santoso, D. (2015). Linguistic Politeness Strategies in Javanese Political Discourse. La Trobe University. Sukarno. (2015). Politeness Strategies in Responding to Compliments in Javanese. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 91–101. Tiarawati, Y., & Wulandari, D. (2015). How Politeness Reflects Social Behavior in Javanese and Batak Language. LANTERN (Journal on English Language, Culture and Literature), 4(4). Widiana, Y., Sumarlam, Marmanto, S., Purnanto, D., & Sulaiman, M. Z. (2020). Intrusive Busybody or Benevolent Buddy: Phatic Communication among Javanese Women. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 20(2), 36–56. Yus, F. (2011). Cyberpragmatics: Internet-mediated Communication in Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company