Use of phosphorus- and potassium-solubilizing multifunctional microbes to support maize growth and yield

Ana Khalisha, Rahayu Widyastuti, Iswandi Anas Chaniago


Intensive chemical fertilizer use has led to environmental problems, ecological impacts, and dependence on chemical fertilizers. Microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) combined with mineral fertilizers can be used to establish an environmentally friendly and sustainable agricultural practice. This study aimed to observe the effectiveness of multifunctional microbes (S. pasteuri and A. costaricaensis) in their wild-type and mutant forms. The microbes can simultaneously solubilize phosphorus and potassium from minerals (rock P and feldspar) to support maize growth and yield. Microbial viability in the zeolite carrier was tested, and the treatment was applied to the field to determine the effect on maize growth and yield. The results showed that zeolite could maintain the microbe population at an average of 108 CFU g-1 during 4 months of storage. A field test revealed that all microbes treatments combined with minerals without the addition of chemical fertilizers could support maize growth and yield by producing maize ear. In particular, mutant A. costaricaensis can support dry stalk weight and maize ear length as effective as chemical fertilizers due to its ability to increase available P and exchangeable K in the soil. Overall, microbes could provide P but not K from the minerals and soil for plant uptake.


Nutrient uptake; Biofertilizer; Viability; Plant support; Maize ear

Full Text:



Astriani, M., Zubaidah, S., Abadi, A. L., & Suarsini, E. (2020). Pseudomonas plecoglossicida as a novel bacterium for phosphate solubilizing and indole-3-acetic acid-producing from soybean rhizospheric soils of East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 21(2), 578-586.

BPS. (2018). Area and Distribution of Critical Land by Province (Hectare), 2011-2018. Statistics Indonesia.

Dandessa, C., & Bacha, K. (2018). Review on Role of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in sustainable agriculture. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review, 6(11), 48-55.

El-Ramady, H. R., Alshaal, T. A., Amer, M., Domokos-Szabolcsy, É., Elhawat, N., Prokisch, J., & Fári, M. (2014). Soil Quality and Plant Nutrition. In H. Ozier-Lafontaine & M. Lesueur-Jannoyer (Eds.), Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 14: Agroecology and Global Change (pp. 345-447). Springer International Publishing.

Etesami, H., Emami, S., & Alikhani, H. A. (2017). Potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB):: Mechanisms, promotion of plant growth, and future prospects ­ A review. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 17, 897-911.

Eviati, & Sulaeman. (2009). Analisis Kimia Tanah, Air, Pupuk, dan Tanaman (B. H. Prasetyo, D. Santoso, & L. R. Widowati, Eds.). Indonesia Soil Research Institute (ISRI).

Flatian, A. N., Slamet, S., & Citraresmini, A. (2020). Pelarutan 3 Jenis Fosfat Alam oleh Fungi Pelarut Fosfat [Phosphate-solubilizing fungi; rock phosphate; pH; P released; fungi pelarut fosfat; fosfat alam; pH; pelarutan P]. Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim, 42(2), 83-90.

Gebreslassie, H. B. (2016). Effect of Potasium Fertilizer on Crop Production. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 6(7), 81-86.

Ginting, R. C. B., Saraswati, R., & Husen, E. (2006). Mikroorganisme Pelarut Fosfat. In R. D. M. Simanungkalit, D. A. Suriadikarta, R. Saraswati, D. Setyorini, & W. Hartatik (Eds.), Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati (pp. 141-158). Balai Besar Litbang Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian Indonesia.

Ingle, K. P., & Padole, D. A. (2017). Phosphate solubilizing microbes: An overview. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(1), 844-852.

Ishaq, L. F., Lukiwati, D., Benggu, Y. I., & Bako, P. O. (2021). Kajian jenis bahan pembawa dan lama simpan terhadap infektivitas dan efektivitas inokulan fungi mikoriza arbuskula. Jurnal Agrotek Tropika, 9(2), 177-188.

Kemenesdm. (2020). Neraca Sumber Daya Dan Cadangan Batubara Indonesia. Indonesia Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.

Kementan. (2019). Keputusan Menteri Pertanian Nomor 261/KPTS/SR.310/M/4/2019 tentang Persyaratan Teknis Minimal Pupuk Organik, Pupuk Hayati, dan Pembenah Tanah. Ministry of Agriculture.

Klaic, R., Plotegher, F., Ribeiro, C., Zangirolami, T. C., & Farinas, C. S. (2017). A novel combined mechanical-biological approach to improve rock phosphate solubilization. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 161, 50-58.

Malusá, E., Sas-Paszt, L., & Ciesielska, J. (2012). Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers. The Scientific World Journal, 2012, 491206.

Meena, V. S., Maurya, B. R., & Verma, J. P. (2014). Does a rhizospheric microorganism enhance K+ availability in agricultural soils? Microbiological Research, 169(5), 337-347.

Puspitawati, M. D., Sugiyanta, & Anas, I. (2014). Pemanfaatan Mikrob Pelarut Fosfat untuk Mengurangi Dosis Pupuk P Anorganik pada Padi Sawah. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), 41(3).

Roy, E. D., Willig, E., Richards, P. D., Martinelli, L. A., Vazquez, F. F., Pegorini, L., . . . Porder, S. (2017). Soil phosphorus sorption capacity after three decades of intensive fertilization in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 249, 206-214.

Shiva, V. (1991). The Violence of the Green Revolution: Third World Agriculture, Ecology, and Politics. Zed Books.

Stevenson, F. J., & Cole, M. A. (1986). Cycles of soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur micronutrients, 2nd edition. Wiley.

Sukmadewi, D. K. T., Anas, I., Widyastuti, R., Anwar, S., & Citraresmini, A. (2021). The effectiveness of application of phosphorous and potassium solubilizing multifunctional microbes (Aspergillus costaricaensis and Staphylococcus pasteuri mutants) on maize growth. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 8(2), 2681-2688.

Viruel, E., Lucca, M. E., & Siñeriz, F. (2011). Plant growth promotion traits of phosphobacteria isolated from Puna, Argentina. Archives of Microbiology, 193(7), 489-496.


  • There are currently no refbacks.