Studying the Solubility, Availability, and Uptake of Silicon (Si) from Some Ore Minerals in Sandy Soil

Rama T. Rashad, Rashad A. Hussien


The solubility and availability of Si from the feldspar, silica, and zeolite as Si-bearing minerals were studied in a sandy soil. Silicon uptake by the soybean (Glycine max L.) plant was discussed. The minerals used were applied before planting in two separate rates; rate 1 ≈ 595.2 and rate 2 ≈ 1190.5 kg ha-1 accompanied by a ≈ 4.8 kg ha-1 constant rate of the K-humate sprayed as a solution on soil after planting in a complete randomized block design. The dissolved Si from the different minerals at rate 2 followed an opposite direction to their SiO2 percentage that may be due to the structural differences: silica (1.46 mg kg-1 - SiO2 =98.4%) < zeolite (1.71 mg kg-1 - SiO2 =75.9%) < feldspar (2.09 mg kg-1 - SiO2 = 71.9%). The individual mineral treatments at rate 2 have almost decreased the available NPK estimated after soybean harvesting. The K-humate has enhanced the effect of silica at rate 2 for the available N and P. The soybean seed yield (kg ha-1) increased significantly by 117.9% for the S1 + H, 109.2% for K-humate and 57.5% for the Z2 + H. The seeds’ Si (mg kg-1) increased significantly from 3.6% to 102.9% affected by the silica treatments.


Feldspars; Sandy soil; Si; Silica; Zeolite

Full Text:



Badr, M. A. 2006. Efficiency of K-feldspar Combined with Organic Materials and Silicate Dissolving Bacteria on Tomato Yield. J Appl Sci Res. 2: 1191-1198.

Black, C. A. 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, Series 9, Am Soc. Agron. Inst. Publ., Madison, WI.: pp 894-1372.

Bocharnikova, E. A., Loginov, S. V., Matychenkova, V. V., Storozhenkob, P. A. 2010. Silicon Fertilizer Efficiency. Russ Agric Sci. 36: 446–448.

Bocharnikova, E. A., Matichenkova, V. V. 2012. Influence of plant associations on the silicon cycle in the soil-plant ecosystem. Appl Ecol Environ Res. 10: 547-560.

Boguta, P., D’Orazio, V., Sokołowska, Z., Senesi, N. 2016. Effects of selected chemical and physicochemical properties of humic acids from peat soils on their interaction mechanisms with copper ions at various pHs. J Geochem Explor. 168: 119-126.

Brigante, M., Zanini, G., Avena., M, 2010. Effect of humic acids on the adsorption of paraquat by goethite. J Hazard Mater. 184: 241–247.

Camargo, M. S.d., Amorim, L., Júnior, A. R. G. 2013. Silicon fertilisation decreases brown rust incidence in sugarcane. Crop Prot. 53: 72-79.

Cruz, M. F. A., Rodrigues, F. l. A., Diniz, A. P. C., Moreira, M. A., Barros, E. G. A. 2014. Soybean Resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi as Affected by Acibenzolar-S-Methyl, Jasmonic Acid, and Silicon. J Phytopathol. 162: 133–136.

Deshmukh, R. K., Vivancos, J., Gue´rin, V., Sonah, H., Labbe´, C., Belzile, F., Be´langer, R. 2013. Identification and functional characterization of silicon transporters in soybean using comparative genomics of major intrinsic proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. Plant Mol Biol. 83: 303–315.

Ehrlich, H., Demadis, K. D., Pokrovsky, O. S., Koutsoukos, P. G. 2010. Modern Views on Desilicification: Biosilica and Abiotic Silica Dissolution in Natural and Artificial Environments. Chem Rev. 110: 4656–4689.

FAO. 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources. A framework for international classification, correlation, and communication. Soil Taxonomy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Gomez, K. A., Gomez, A. A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA: pp 8–20.

Gonzalo, M. J., Lucena, J. J., Hernández-Apaolaza, L. 2013. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency. Plant Physiol Biochem. 70: 455-461.

Heckman, J., Wolf, A. 2009. Recommended Soil Tests for Silicon, Chapter 12, Last Revised 10/2009. Cooperative Bull No 493: 99-102.

Jackson, M. L. 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Califfs, New Jersy, USA: pp 429–464.

Ji, X., Liu, S., Huang, J., Bocharnikova, E., Matichenkova, V. 2016. Monosilicic acid potential in phytoremediation of the contaminated areas. Chemosphere 157: 132-136.

Júnior, J. A. A., Baldo, J. B. 2014. The Behavior of Zeta Potential of Silica Suspensions. New J Glass Ceram. 4: 29-37.

Li, C., Dong, Y., Wu, D., Peng, L., Kong, H. 2011. Surfactant modified zeolite as adsorbent for removal of humic acid from water. Appl Clay Sci. 52: 353–357.

Li, J., Wee, C., Sohn, B. 2013. Effect of Ammonium- and Potassium-Loaded Zeolite on Kale Growth and Soil Property. Amer J Plant Sci. 04(10): 1976-1982.

Liang, Y., Nikolic, M., Bélanger, R., Gong, H., Song, A. 2015. Silicon in agriculture: From theory to practice. Springer, Dordrecht: pp 5.

Matychenkova, I. V., Khomyakova, D. M., Pakhnenko, E. P., Bocharnikova, E. A., Matychenkova, V. V. 2016. Mobile Si-Rich Compounds in the Soilournal Instem and Methods for Their Determination. Moscow Univ Soil Sci Bull. 71 (3): 120sity S

Miyake, Y., Takahashi, E. 1985. Effect of Silicon on the Growth of Soybean Plants in a Solution Culture. Soil Sci. Plant Nutri. 31: 625-636.

Moriguchi, T., Yano, K., Tahara, M., Yaguchi, K. 2005. Metal-modified silica adsorbents for removal of humic substances in water. J Colloid Interface Sci. 283: 300–310.

Perez-Caballero, R., Gil, J., Benitez, C., Gonzalez, J. L. 2008. The effect of adding Zeolite to soils in order to Improve the N-K nutrition of olive trees. preliminary results. Amer. J Agric Biol Sci. 2: 321-324.

Rashad, R. T., Hussien, R. A. 2014. A comparison study on the effect of some growth regulators on the nutrients content of maize plant under salinity conditions. Ann Agric Sci. 59: 89–94.

Rodrigues, F. A., Datnoff, L. E. eds. 2015. Silicon and Plant Diseases. Springer: pp 141.

Rodrigues, L. L., Daroub, S. H., Rice, R. W., Snyder, G. H. 2003. Comparison of three soil test methods for estimating plant-available silicon. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal. 34: 15-16.

Sarawade, P. B., Kim, J-K., Hilonga, A., Kim, H. T. 2010. Recovery of high surface area mesoporous silica from waste hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) of fertilizer industry. J Hazard Mater. 173: 576–580.

Savci, S. 2012. An Agricultural Pollutant: Chemical Fertilizer. Int J Environ Sci Dev. 3(1): 77-80.

Selim, M. E., El-Neklawy, A. S., El-Ashry, S. M. 2010. Beneficial Effects of Humic Substances on Soil Fertility to Fertigated Potato Grown on Sandy Soil. Libyan Agric Res Cent J Int. 1: 255-262.

Skorina, T., Allanore, A. 2015. Aqueous alteration of potassium-bearing aluminosilicate minerals: from mechanism to processing. Green Chem. 17: 2123-2136.

Smith, J. V. 1998. Atmospheric weathering and silica-coated feldspar: Analogy with zeolite molecular sieves, granite weathering, soil formation, ornamental slabs, and ceramics (architecture). Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Geology. 95: 3366–3369.

Snyder, G.H., Matichenkova, V.V., Datnoff, L.E. 2006. Handbook of Plant Nutrition. CRC Press, DK2972 Ch 19, Silicon, pp 551-568.

Sokolova, T. A. 2013. The destruction of quartz, amorphous silica minerals, and feldspars in model experiments and in soils: Possible mechanisms, rates, and diagnostics (the analysis of literature). Eurasian Soil Sci. 46: 91-105.

Wada, H. 2005. Managing sandy soils in Northeast Thailand. Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Agriculture “A holistic approach for sustainable development of problem soils in the tropics” Proceedings, 27th November – 2nd December, Khon Kaen, Thailand, Session 3 “Chemical properties and their effect on productivity”: pp 82-92.

Wiese, H., Nikolic, M., Römheld, V. 2007. Silicon in plant nutrition effects on zinc, manganese and boron leaf concentrations and compartmentation. Transport and Reactions, The Apoplast of Higher Plants: Compart Stor: pp 33–47.

Xie, W., Zhou, J., Wang, H., Liu, Q., Xia, J., Lv, X. 2011. Cu and Pb accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) as affected by N, P and K application. Afr J Agric Res. 6: 1469-1476.


  • There are currently no refbacks.