Information of Medical Malpractice and Risks in The Informed Consent Process Before Surgery in Indonesia

Sutarno Sutarno, Maryati Maryati


This study examines Indonesian statuary regulation that requires doctors or hospitals to explain the medical malpractices or risks to surgery patients during the informed consent process. The study was triggered by the frequent medical disputes caused by the patient's misinformation regarding possible medical malpractices or risks related to surgery. In this case, patients need transparent and relevant information during the informed consent process. Therefore, this study examines the statuary regulation that requires doctors or hospitals to explain the medical malpractices or risks to surgery patients during the informed consent process. It used secondary data collected from literature studies of relevant materials and analyzed using normative and qualitative methods. The results indicated that no statutory regulation requires doctors to explain the medical malpractices and risks associated with surgery during the informed consent. This means that the required transparency principle is often not implemented. Therefore, these laws are urgently needed because the public is misinformed about medical malpractices and risks


Informed Consent Process; Medical Malpractice; Medical Risk

Full Text:



Ala’I, Padideh, Robert G. Vaughn. (2016). Research Handbook of Transparency. Camberley: Edward Elgar Publishing Inc.

Ali, Zainuddin. (2015). Sociology of Law. Jakarta: Sinar Grafika.

Ayers, Susan, Andrew Baum, Chris McManus, et al. (2007). Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health, and Medicine. Cambridge University Press.

Boot, Macchteld. (2001). Nullum Crimen Sine Lege and The Subyect Matter Jurisdiction of The International Criminal Court, Genocide, Crimes against Humanity, War Crimes, Intersenita Leiden. P 199, quoted by Dr. Made Darma Weda, SH, MS, Lecturer of Faculty of Law, Sahid University, Jakarta, Researcher at Balitbang Dep. RI Law and Human Rights

Chazawi, Adami. (2015). Malpraktik Kedokteran. Jakarta: Sinar Grafika.

Claramita, Mora, Astrid Pratidina Susilo, marcy Rosenbaum, Jan van Dalen. (2017). Communication of Healthcare Workers and Patients in a Cultural Context of Southeast Asia, Jakarta: Book Medical Publishers EGC.

Crowther, Jonathan. (1995). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, fifth edition, Oxford University Press.

Daryanto, Muljo Rahardjo. (2015). Communication Theory. Yogyakarta: Gava Media.

Faden, Ruth R., Tom L Beauchamp. (1986)..A History and Theory of Informed Consent. Oxford University Press.

Guwandi, J. (2005). Medical Error dan Hukum Medis, Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FKUI, Hatta, Mohammad. (2013). Health Law and Medical Disputes. Yogyakarta: Publisher Liberty.

Hiariej, Eddy OS. (2014). Principles of Criminal Law . Yogyakarta: Cahaya Atma Pustaka

Ibrahim, Johnny. (2006). Teori dan Metodologi Penelitian Hukum Normatif. Malang: Bayumedia.

Jones, James W., Laurence B. McCullough, Bruce W. Richard. (2008). The Ethics of Surgical Practice: cases, dilemmas, and resolutions. Oxford University Press.
Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn. (2003). Medical Negligence Law in Malaysisa, Selangor: International Law Book Services.

Kirschner, Neil (2010), Healthcare Transparency-Focus on Price and Clinical Performance Information, a policy paper of the American College of Physicians, available at: www. American College of Physicians

Komalawati, Veronica. (2002). Peranan Informed Consent dalam Transaksi Terapeutik (persetujuan dalam hubungan dokter pasien) Suatu Tinjauan Yuridis (The Role of Informed Consent in Therapeutic Transactions (consent in the patient doctor relationship) A Juridical Review). Bandung: Citra Aditya Bakti.

Manias, Elizabeth. (2015). Communicating in Surgery in Communicating Quality and Safety in Health Care, edited by Rick Iedema, Donella Piper, Marie Manidis, Cambridge University Press.

McCullough, Laurence B., James W. Jones, Baruch A. Prody. (1998). Surgical Ethics, Oxford University Press. Medical Treatment Beyond First Aid. Available at

Moeljanto. (2002). Principles of Criminal Law. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Supriadi, Wila Chandra. (2001). Medical Law. Bandung: CV.Mandar Maju.

Veronika Komalasari,(1998) Hukum dan Etika Dalam Praktek Dokter, Pustaka Sinar Harapan, Jakarta, hal. 87

Waluyo, B. (2002). Penelitian Hukum dalam Praktek. Jakarta: Sinar Grafika.

William J.R. (2005). Medical Ethics Manual, Ethics Unit of the World Medical Association. Ferney-Voltaire: WMA

Bilotta, C., Zerbo, S., Perrone, G., Malta, G., & Argo, A. (2020). The medico-legal implications in medical malpractice claims during Covid-19 pandemic: Increase or trend reversal?. The Medico-legal journal, 88(1_suppl), 35–37. Acess, July 9th, 2021

Bulletin of the Prabu PABI, vol 5, January-June 2006, p. 31

Boyll, P., Kang, P., Mahabir, R. and Bernard, R.W., 2018. Variables that impact medical malpractice claims involving plastic surgeons in the United States. Aesthetic surgery journal, 38(7), pp.785-792.

Brody, Howard. Transparency: Informed consent in Primary Care. The Hastings Center Report, vol. 19 (05), 1989

Di Luca, A., Vetrugno, G., Pascali, V.L., Oliva, A. and Ozonoff, A., 2019. Perspectives on patient safety and medical malpractice: Comparing medical and legal systems in Italy and the United States. Journal of patient safety, 15(4), pp.e78-e81.

Duignan, K. and Bradbury, C. (2020) ‘Covid-19 and medical negligence litigation: Immunity for healthcare professionals?’, Medico-Legal Journal, 88(1_suppl), pp.31–34. doi: 10.1177/0025817220935892.

Dunn, M., Fulford, K.W.M., Herring, J., and Handa, A., 2019. Between the reasonable and the particular: Deflating autonomy in the legal regulation of informed consent to medical treatment. Health Care Analysis, 27(2), pp.110-127.

Fainzang, Sylvie, Lying, secrecy, and power within the doctor-patient relationship, Anthropology & Medicine, Vol. 9, n ° 2, 2002: 118-133

Lee, J.S., Pérez-Stable, E.J., Gregorich, S.E. et al. 2017, Increased Access to Professional Interpreters in the Hospital Improves Informed Consent for Patients with Limited English Proficiency. J GEN INTERN MED 32, 863–870.

Myers, L.C., et al. l, 2020. An examination of medical malpractice claims involving physician trainees. Academic Medicine, 95(8), pp.1215-1222.

Oguno, P. and Anigbogu, I.E., 2020. Negligence And Malpractice:The Siamese Harbingers Of Grief In Contemporary Nigerian Medical Practice. African Journal
of Law And Human Rights, 4(1).

Uma1, P.K, Pratibha Ramani2, Herald. J. Sherlin3, Gheena.S4, Gifrina Jayaraj4, K.R. Don5, Archana Santhanam5 (2020) “Knowledge about Legal Aspects of Medical Negligence in India among Dentists–A Questionnaire Survey,” Medico-Legal Update, 20(1), pp. 111-115. doi: 10.37506/mlu.v20i1.33

Tarkiainen, T., Turpeinen, M., Haapea, M., Liukkonen, E., & Niinimäki, J. (2021). Investigating errors in medical imaging: medical malpractice cases in Finland.
Insights into Imaging, 12(1), 86.

Weinstein, James, Kate Clay, Tamara S Morgan, Informed Patient Choice: Patient-centere Valuing of Surgical Risks and Benefits, Health Affairs 26, no.3 (2007), p. 726-727

Law Number: 29 of 2004 concerning Medical Practice, Gazette 2004/ No.116, Supplement to the State Gazette NO. 4431, LL SETNEG: 42 Pgs

Law Number: 36 of 2009 concerning Health. Gazette 2009/ No. 144, Supplement to the State Gazette NO. 5063, LL SETNEG: 77 Pgs

Law Number: 36 of 2014 concerning Health Workers. Gazette.2014/No. 298, Supplement to the State Gazette No. 5607, LL SETNEG: 53 Pgs.

Regulation of the Minister of Health Number: 290 / Menkes / PER / III / 2008 concerning Approval for Medical Action.Victorian Law Reform Commission - Guardianship Final Report, p. 279. Available At dical%20treatment.pdf

Medical Treatment Act 1988 ( No. 41 of 1988 ), available at http://www.legislation.vic. Domino/Web_Notes/LDMS

Shinning Light: safer health care through transparency, The National Patient Safety Foundation’s Lucian Leape Institute, 2015. P.2


  • There are currently no refbacks.