Soil properties and shallot yield responses to different salinity levels

Jauhari Syamsiah, Rahayu Rahayu, Wily Binafsihi


Successful management of saline water could have significant potential for agricultural development in many areas, particularly in freshwater-scarce regions. To date, the effect of salinity on shallot (Allium Cepa L.) yield and growth parameters has not been studied in detail specifically for local varieties cultivated in Inceptisols. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of different levels of irrigation-water salinity (0, 1, 2, and 3 dSm-1) on soil chemical properties, the growth, and yield of local shallot varieties. The experiment was conducted in pots using a randomized plot design with two factors and three replications. The results showed that increases in salinity level affected increases soil pH, exchangeable Na percentages, and plant height growth. Nevertheless, bulb number and weight, soil exchangeable Ca and Mg, soil organic carbon, and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was not significantly affected. The findings of the present study suggest that the local varieties—Brebes and Purbalingga—with irrigated salinity levels up to 3 dSm-1can be tolerated for shallot cultivation in Inceptisols.


Irrigation water salinity; Local varieties; Soil chemical properties; Yield of shallot

Full Text:



Abd-Elwahed, M. S. (2019). Effect of long-term wastewater irrigation on the quality of alluvial soil for agricultural sustainability. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 64(2), 151–160.

Adiku, S. G. K., Renger, M., Wessolek, G., Facklam, M., & Hecht-Bucholtz, C. (2001). Simulation of the dry matter production and seed yield of common beans under varying soil water and salinity conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 47(1), 55–68.

Akhwan, I. A. S., Sulistyaningsih, E., & Widada, J. (2012). Peran JMA dan bakteri penghasil ACC deaminase terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil bawang merah pada cekaman salinitas. Vegetalika, 1(2), 53–70.

Angassa, A., Sheleme, B., Oba, G., Treydte, A. C., Linstädter, A., & Sauerborn, J. (2012). Savanna land use and its effect on soil characteristics in southern Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments, 81, 67–76.

Ashraf, M. (2009). Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnology Advances, 27(1), 84–93.

BPS. (2019). Statistik hortikultura provinsi Jawa Tengah. Retrieved December 21, 2019, from www.

Brady, N. C., & Weil, R. R. (2002). The nature and properties of soils (13th ed.). New Jersey, USA: Prentice- Hall Inc.

Bremner, J. M. (1965). Total nitrogen. In C. A. Black (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbial properties (Number 9 i, pp. 1049–1178). Madison, USA: American Society of Agronomy Inc.

Carson, P. L. (1980). Recommended potassium test. In W. C. Dahnke (Ed.), Recommended Chemical Soil Test Procedures for the North Central Region, Bulletin 499 (pp. 17–18). Fargo, North Dakota, USA: North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station.

David, D. J. (1960). The determination of exchangeable sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in soils by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. Analyst, 85, 495–503.

DeMicco, V., Scala, M., & Aronne, G. (2006). Effects of simulated microgravity on male gametophyte of Prunus, Pyrus, and Brassica species. Protoplasma, 228, 121–126.

Flörke, M., Schneider, C., & McDonald, R. I. (2018). Water competition between cities and agriculture driven by climate change and urban growth. Nature Sustainability, 1, 51–58.

Gill, R. A., Zang, L., Ali, B., Farooq, M. A., Cui, P., Yang, S., … Zhou, W. (2015). Chromium-induced physio-chemical and ultrastructural changes in four cultivars of Brassica napus L. Chemosphere. Chemosphere, 120, 154–164.

Istiqomah, N., Barunawati, N., Aini, N., & Widaryanto, E. (2019). True shallot seed production of lowland shallot under the application of seaweed extract and N fertilizer. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 6(90), 325–338.

Jalali, V., Kapourchal, S. A., & Homaee, M. (2017). Evaluating performance of macroscopic water uptake models at productive growth stages of durum wheat under saline conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 180, 13–21.

Kadayifci, A., Tuylu, G. İ., Ucar, Y., & Cakmak, B. (2005). Crop water use of onion (Allium cepa L.) in Turkey. Agricultural Water Management, 72(1), 59–68.

Khaleghi, E., Karamnezhad, F., & Moallemi, N. (2019). Study of pollen morphology and salinity effect on the pollen grains of four olive (Olea europaea) cultivars. South African Journal of Botany, 127, 51–57.

Kiremit, M. S., & Arslan, H. (2016). Effects of irrigation water salinity on drainage water salinity, evapotranspiration, and other leek (Allium porrum L.) plant parameters. Scientia Horticulturae, 201, 211–217.

Koval, V. S. (2004). Male and female gametophyte selection of barley for salt tolerance. Hereditas, 132(1), 1–5.

Li, J., Gao, Y., Zhang, X., Tian, P., Li, J., & Tian, Y. (2019). Comprehensive comparison of different saline water irrigation strategies for tomato production: Soil properties, plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality. Agricultural Water Management, 213, 521–533.

Mahrous, F. N., Mikkelsen, D. S., & Hafez, A. A. (1983). Effect of soil salinity on the electro-chemical and chemical kinetics of some plant nutrients in submerged soils. Plant and Soil, 75, 455–172.

Mangal, J. L., Lal, S., & Hooda, P. S. (1989). Salt tolerance of the onion seed crop. Journal of Horticultural Science, 64(4), 475–477.

Moyin-Jesu, E. I. (2007). Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth, and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L). Bioresource Technology, 98(11), 2057–2064.

Murphy, J., & Riley, J. P. (1962). A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 27, 31–36.

Murtaza, G., Ghafoor, A., & Qadir, M. (2006). Irrigation and soil management strategies for using saline-sodic water in a cotton–wheat rotation. Agricultural Water Management, 81(1–2), 98–114.

Rabie, G. H., Aboul-Nasr, M. B., & Al-Humiany, A. (2005). Increased Salinity Tolerance of Cowpea Plants by Dual Inoculation of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus clarum and a Nitrogen-fixer Azospirillum brasilense. Microbiology, 33(1), 51–60.

Ravikumar, R. L., Patil, B. S., & Salimath, P. M. (2003). Drought tolerance in sorghum by pollen selection using osmotic stress. Euphytica, 133, 371–376.

Sumarni, N., Rosliani, R., & Suwandi. (2012). Optimasi jarak tanam dan dosis pupuk untuk produksi bawang merah dari benih umbi mini di dataran tinggi. Jurnal Hortikultura (ID), 22(2), 147–154.

Tetsopgang, S., & Fonyuy, F. (2019). Enhancing growth quality and yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) while increasing soil pH, chemicals, and organic carbon with the application of fines from volcanic pyroclastic materials on a tropical soil in Wum, Northwest Cameroon, Africa. Scientific African, 6, e00199.

Turhan, M. S., Kuscu, H., Özmen, N., & Demir, A. O. (2014). The effect of different salinity levels on the yield and some quality parameters of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20, 280–287.

Wu, X., Zheng, Y., Wu, B., Tian, Y., Han, F., & Zheng, C. (2016). Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for irrigation to address human-nature water conflicts: A surrogate modeling approach. Agricultural Water Management, 163, 380–392.

Yuliani, F. (2017). Respon Morfologi dan Fisiologi Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium cepa L.) Terhadap Cekaman Salinitas. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia. Retrieved from

Zaki, M. K., Komariah, Rahmat, A., & Pujiasmanto, B. (2018). Organic amendment and fertilizer effect on soil chemical properties and yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in rainfed condition. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 17(1), 11–17.


  • There are currently no refbacks.