The decomposition and efficiency of NPK-enriched biochar addition on Ultisols with soybean

Sugeng Winarso, Marga Mandala, Hari Sulistiyowati, Sukron Romadhona, Bambang Hermiyanto, Wachju Subchan


This research aims to compare fresh biochar and NPK-enriched biochar and their decomposition levels and nutrient absorption efficiency in acid soil with soybean. Factorial randomized block design was used in this experiment and consisted of two factors. The first factor, biochar source, comprised four levels: B0: biochar without NPK, B1: rice straw biochar + NPK, B2: soybean straw biochar + NPK, and B3: wood biochar + NPK. The second factor, biochar enrichment, comprised four levels: D1: 0.5 tons ha-1, D2: 2.5 tons ha-1, D3: 5.0 tons ha-1, and D4: 10 tons ha-1. Each treatment was replicated three times, yielding 48 experiment units. The results showed that biochar enrichment with NPK affected the decomposition level. The percentage of increasing decomposition in enriched wood biochar (0.09%) was lower than rice (0.28%) and soybean (0.53%) straw biochar. An increase in NPK absorbance efficiency and soybean dry weight was evident in NPK-enriched biochar. The highest N absorbance efficiency occurred in wood biochar (21%), followed by soybean and rice straw biochar, respectively, while the highest P and K absorbances were found in rice straw biochar (35% and 26%, respectively), followed by wood and then soybean biochar.


Biochar; Decomposition; Efficiency; NPK; Ultisols

Full Text:



Abel, S., Peters, A., Trinks, S., Schonsky, H., Faklam, M., & Wessolek, G. (2013). Impact of biochar and hydrochar addition on water retention and water repellency of sandy soil. Geoderma, 202–203, 183–191.

Bachmann, H. J., Bucheli, T. D., Dieguez-Alonso, A., Fabbri, D., Knicker, H., Schmidt, H. P., … et al. (2016). Toward the standardization of biochar analysis: The COST action TD1107 interlaboratory comparison. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(2), 513–527.

Dariah, A., & Nurida, N. L. (2012). Pemanfaatan biochar untuk meningkatkan produktivitas lahan kering beriklim kering. Buana Sains, 12(1), 33–38.

de Figueredo, N. A., da Costa, L. M., Melo, L. C. A., Siebeneichlerd, E. A., & Tronto., J. (2017). Characterization of biochars from different sources and evaluation of release of nutrients and contaminants. Revista Ciência Agronômica, 48(3), 395–403.

Herath, H. M. S. K., Camps-Arbestain, M., Hedley, M. J., Kirschbaun, M. U. F., Wang, T., & van Hale, R. (2013). Experimental evidence for sequestering C with biochar by avoidance of CO2 emissions from original feedstock and protection of native soil organic matter. Bioenergy, 7(3), 512–526.

Kizito, S., Luo, H., Lu, J., Bah, H., Dong, R., & Wu, S. (2019). Role of nutrient-enriched biochar as a soil amendment during maize growth: exploring practical alternatives to recycle agricultural residuals and to reduce chemical fertilizer demand. Sustainability, 11(3211), 1–22.

Lehmann, J. (2007). Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(7), 381–387.

Lehmann, J., & Joseph, S. (2009). Biochar: environmental management. USA: Earthscan.

Levine, J. (2010). Focused biochar report: assessment of biochar’s benefits for the United States of America. Colorado, USA: Centennial Printing.

Manshuri, A. G. (2012). Optimasi pemupukan NPK pada kedelai untuk mempertahankan kesuburan tanah dan hasil tinggi di lahan sawah. Iptek Tanaman Pangan, 7(1), 38–46.

McLaughlin, H., Anderson, P., Shields, F., & Reed, T. B. (2009). All biochars are not created equal, and how to tell them apart. In North American Biochar Conference (pp. 1–38). Boulder, Colorado, US.

McLaughlin, H., Shields, F., Jagiello, J., & Tiele, G. (2012). Analytical options for biochar Adsorption and surface area. In US Biochar Conference 2012 (pp. 1–19). Retrieved from

Mohammadi, K., Heidari, G., Khalesro, S., & Sohrabi, Y. (2011). Soil management, microorganisms, and organic matter interactions: a review. African Journal Of Biotechnology, 10(86), 19840–19849.

Mukherjee, A., & Zimmerman, A. R. (2013). Organic carbon and nutrient release from a range of laboratory-produced biochars and biochar–soil mixtures. Geoderma, 193–194, 122–130.

Powlson, D. S., Hirsch, P. R., & Brookes, P. (2001). The role of soil microorganisms in soil organic matter conservation in the tropics. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 61(1), 41–51.

PPT. (1995). Petunjuk teknis evaluasi kesuburan tanah. Laporan Teknis No.14. Versi 1,0.1. REP II Project. Bogor, Indonesia: CSAR.

Sanderman, J., Creamer, C., Baisden, W. T., Farrell, M., & Fallon., S. (2017). Greater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity. Soil, 3, 1–16.

Schahczenski, J. (2010). Biochar and sustainable agriculture. (H. Michels, Ed.). ATTRA. Retrieved from

Sohi, S., Lopez-Capel, E., Krull, E., & Bol, R. (2009). Biochar, climate change and soil: A review to guide future research (CSIRO Land). CSIRO. Retrieved from

Steinbeiss, S., Gleixner, G., & Antonietti, M. (2009). Effect of biochar amendment on soil carbon balance and soil microbial activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry Biochemistry, 41(6), 1301–1310.

Sun, Z., Liu, S., Zhang, T., Zhao, X., Chen, S., & Wang, Q. (2019). Priming of soil organic carbon decomposition induced by exogenous organic carbon input: a meta-analysis. Plant and Soil, 443, 463–471.

Verheijen, F., Jeffery, S., Bastos, A. C., van der Velde, M., & Diafas, I. (2010). Biochar application to soils: A critical scientific review of effects on soil properties, processes, and functions. Italy: Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities.

Wang, B., & Allison, S. D. (2019). Emergent properties of organic matter decomposition by soil enzymes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 136, 107522.

Wang, J., Xiong, Z., & Kuzyakov, Y. (2015). Biochar stability in soil: meta-analysis of decomposition and priming effects. Bioenergy, 8(3), 512–523.

Whitman, T., Scholz, S. M., & Lehmann, J. (2010). Biochar projects for mitigating climate change: an investigation of critical methodology issues for carbon accounting. Carbon Management, 1(1), 89–107.

Winarso, S., Hermiyanto, B., Mandala, M., Sulistiyowati, H., & Ilmiawan, N. M. (2017). Improvement of soil properties by addition of biochar as enriched fertilizer for growth promoting of soybean plant. Journal of Tropical Soils, 25(2).

Yadav, R. K., Yadav, M. R., Kumar, R., Parihar, C. M., Yadav, N., Bajiya, R., … Yadav, B. (2017). Role of biochar in mitigation of climate change through carbon sequestration. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(4), 859–866.

Zheng, R., Chen, Z., Cai, C., X. Wang, , Huang, Y., Xiao, B., & Sun, G. (2013). Effect of biochars from rice husk, bran, and straw on heavy metal uptake by pot-grown wheat seedling in a historically contaminated soil. Bio Resources, 8(4), 5965–5982.


  • There are currently no refbacks.