HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE ON ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL AND POLITICAL CAPITAL IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

Bhimo Rizky Samudro, Yogi Pasca Pratama, Albertus Magnus Soesilo

Abstract


This paper surveys the relationship between environmental capital and political capital among countries in Southeast Asia using holistic perspective. Holistic theories emphasize that the whole is not only greater than the sum of the parts, but that the parts are related in such way that their functioning is conditioned by their relationship. Holistic perspective is being supported by the ecological footprint data as environmental capital among countries in Southeast Asia. Then, this paper uses political capital among countries in that region. Political capital can be derived into some political indicators such as political rights and civil liberties. Next, the paper examines the pattern relationship between these variables environmental capital and political capital in Southeast Asia. Change in these forms of capital represent “institutional relationship” among countries in Southeast Asia. By accomplishing the concept “institutional relationship”, this paper can explain various responses among countries in Southeast Asia for responding uncertainty condition around those capitals.

Keywords: Southeast Asia, Environmental Capital, Political Capital, Holistic Perspective


Full Text:

PDF
rticle

References


———. (1968). Asian Drama: An Inquiry into Poverty of Nations, 3 vols. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.

Boulding, K. (1984). The World as A Total System. United States: SAGE Publisher.

Chandler, D. P., et.al. (1971). In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History edited David Joel Steinberg. United States: Pall Mall.

Freedom House. (1973). Freedom Index Comparative Data in 1973-2009: Freedom House.

Kaldor, N. (1972). The Irrelevance of Equilibrium Economics. Economics Journal, 82(328), 1237-1255.

Kapp, K. W. (1963). The Social Cost of Business Enterprise. Nottingham, United Kingdom: Spokesman Book.

Maddison, A. (2007). Contours of the World Economy, I-2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History. New York: Oxford University Press.

Myrdal, G. (1944). An American Dilemmma. United States: Harper and Row.

New Economic Foundation. (2005). Happy Planet Index 2.0. in 1961-2005: New Economic Foudation.

O'Hara, P. A. (2008). A Myrdalian Holistic Perspective on Global and Regional Performance and Uneven Development. Working Paper Global Political Economy Research Unit.

Pini, P. (1995). Economic Growth, Technological Change and Employment, Empirical Evidence for a Cumulative Growth Model with External Causation for Nine OECD Countries: 1960-1990. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 6, 185-213.

Veblen, T. (1898). The Theory of Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution Institutions. New York: Macmillan.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.20961/aedc.v3i2.40326

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Applied Economics in Developing Countries




JAEDC
Print ISSN: 2354-6417
Online ISSN: 2685-7448
Website: https://jurnal.uns.ac.id/jaedc
Email: jaedc@mail.uns.ac.id
Published by: Master of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sebelas Maret
Office: Ir. Sutami Street, No. 36A, Surakarta, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia