Growth and Yield of Soybean as a Response of the Fertilization of NPK Compound Produced with Spent and Deoiled Bleaching Earth Filler

Radinal Arief Sinaga, Budiastuti Kurniasih, Eka Tarwaca Susila Putra


Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) is a by-product of the refining of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) into cooking oil which is classified as hazardous and toxic materials waste. SBE has the potential to be used as a filler in the production of NPK fertilizer. This study aims to compare the effect of SBE and Deoiled Bleaching Earth (DBE) as the replacement of clay mineral, which is expected to have the same effect as the control treatment in terms of the leaf area, total dry weight, plant height and yield of plant. This experiment used a one-factor Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The treatments of filler in NPK fertilizer were 10% clay minerals, NPK with 5% clay mineral + 5% SBE filler and NPK with 5% clay mineral + 5% DBE filler. Fertilizer was given twice, ie when the plant was 14 days after planting (DAP) as much as 2 g polybag-1 and age 35 DAP as much as 3 g polybag-1 at each treatment. The results showed that the application of NPK fertilization with 5% clay mineral + 5% SBE filler and NPK fertilization with 5% clay mineral + 5% DBE filler had the same effect as NPK fertilization with 10% clay mineral filler on leaf area, total dry weight, plant height and yield of plant. SBE and DBE can be used as substituties for clay mineral in NPK fertilizer production.


deoiled bleaching earth; NPK; soybean; spent bleaching earth

Full Text:



Adileksana, C., Yudono, P., Purwanto, B. H., & Wijoyo, R. B. (2020). The growth performance of oil palm seedlings in pre-nursery and main nursery stages as a response to the substitution of NPK compound fertilizer and organic fertilizer. Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 35(1), 89–97. Crossref

Ahmad, P., Abd Allah, E. F., Hashem, A., Sarwat, M., & Gucel, S. (2016). Erratum to: exogenous application of selenium mitigates cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (czern & cross) by up-regulating antioxidative system and secondary metabolites (j plant growth regul, 10.1007/s00344-016-9592-3). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 35(4), 951. Crossref

Amanullah, A. (2015). Specific leaf area and specific leaf weight in small grain crops wheat, rye, barley, and oats differ at various growth stages and NPK source. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 38(11), 1694–1708. Crossref

Badan Standardisasi Indonesia. (2009). Batas maksimum cemaran logam berat dalam pangan. Standar Nasional Indonesia, 17. Retrieved from Link

Beshara, A., & Cheeseman, C. R. (2014). Reuse of spent bleaching earth by polymerisation of residual organics. Waste Management, 34(10), 1770–1774. Crossref

Boey, P. L., Saleh, M. I., Sapawe, N., Ganesan, S., Maniam, G. P., & Ali, D. M. H. (2011). Pyrolysis of residual palm oil in spent bleaching clay by modified tubular furnace and analysis of the products by GC-MS. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 91(1), 199–204. Crossref

Eliche-Quesada, D., & Corpas-Iglesias, F. A. (2014). Utilisation of spent filtration earth or spent bleaching earth from the oil refinery industry in clay products. Ceramics International, 40(10 Part B), 16677–16687. Crossref

Embrandiri, A., Singh, R. P., Ibrahim, H. M., & Ramli, A. A. (2012). Land application of biomass residue generated from palm oil processing: Its potential benefits and threats. Environmentalist, 32(1), 111–117. Crossref

Ermawati, T., & Saptia, Y. (2013). Kinerja ekspor minyak sawit Indonesia. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 7(2), 129–147. Retrieved from Link

Eviati, & Sulaeman. (2009). Analisis kimia tanah, tanaman, air, dan pupuk (Petunjuk T; B.H. Prasetyo, D. Santoso, & L. R. W, eds.). Retrieved from Link

Fahmi, A. S., Gumbira-Sa’id, E., & Suryani, A. (2014). Biodiesel production from residual palm oil contained in spent bleaching earth by in situ trans-esterification. EnvironmentAsia, 7(1), 104–111. Retrieved from Link

FAO. (2015). General standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed (Codex Stan 193-1995). 51(2), 39–54. Retrieved from Link

Fernando, D. R., Marshall, A. T., Forster, P. I., Hoebee, S. E., & Siegele, R. (2013). Multiple metal accumulation within a manganese-specific genus. American Journal of Botany, 100(4), 690–700. Crossref

Gardner, F. P., Pearce, R. B., & Mitchell, R. L. (2008). Fisiologi tanaman budidaya. Jakarta: UI Press.

Hanum, C. (2010). Pertumbuhan dan hasil kedelai yang diasosiasikan dengan rhizobium pada zona iklim kering e (klasifikasi oldeman). Bionatura - Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Hayati Dan Fisik, 12(3), 176–183. Retrieved from Link

Hussin, F., Aroua, M. K., & Daud, W. M. A. W. (2011). Textural characteristics, surface chemistry and activation of bleaching earth: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal, 170(1), 90–106. Crossref

Jati, R. I., Tohari, T., & Suryanto, P. (2017). The optimum dose of nitrogen, phosporus, and potassium to improve soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr) productivity on kayu putih (Melaleuca cajuputi) stands. Ilmu Pertanian (Agricultural Science), 2(2), 56–63. Crossref

Kamilah, H., Al-Gheethi, A., Yang, T. A., & Sudesh, K. (2018). The use of palm oil-based waste cooking oil to enhance the production of polyhydroxybutyrate [p(3hb)] by cupriavidus necator h16 strain. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 43(7), 3453–3463. Crossref

Kastono, D. (2005). Tanggapan Pertumbuhan dan hasil kedelai hitam terhadap penggunaan pupuk organik dan biopestisida gulma siam (Chromolaena odorata). Ilmu Pertanian, 12(2), 103–116. Retrieved from Link

Kheang, L. S., Foon, C. S., May, C. Y., & Ngan, M. A. (2006). A study of residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth: Their characteristics and applications. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(10), 2063–2067. Crossref

Loh, S. K., Cheong, K. Y., Choo, Y. M., & Salimon, J. (2015). Formulation and optimisation of spent bleaching earth-based bio organic fertiliser. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 27(1), 57–66. Retrieved from Link

Loh, S. K., James, S., Ngatiman, M., Cheong, K. Y., Choo, Y. M., & Lim, W. S. (2013). Enhancement of palm oil refinery waste - Spent bleaching earth (SBE) into bio organic fertilizer and their effects on crop biomass growth. Industrial Crops and Products, 49, 775–781. Crossref

Mulyadi, A. (2012). Pengaruh pemberian legin, pupuk npk (15:15:15) dan urea pada tanah gambut terhadap kandungan n, p total pucuk dan bintil akar kedelai (Glycine max (L) Merr). Kaunia: Integration and Interconnection Islam and Science, 8(1), 21–29. Retrieved from Link

Ng, W. K., Koh, C. B., & Din, Z. B. (2006). Palm oil-laden spent bleaching clay as a substitute for marine fish oil in the diets of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 12(6), 459–468. Crossref

Ofori-Boateng, C., & Lee, K. T. (2013). Sustainable utilization of oil palm wastes for bioactive phytochemicals for the benefit of the oil palm and nutraceutical industries. Phytochemistry Reviews, 12(1), 173–190. Crossref

Park, E. Y., Kato, A., & Ming, H. (2004). Utilization of waste activated bleaching earth containing palm oil in riboflavin production by Ashbya gossypii. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 81(1), 57–62. Crossref

Permanasari, I., Irfan, M., & Abizar. (2014). Pertumbuhan dan hasil kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merill) dengan pemberian rhizobium dan pupuk urea pada media gambut. Jurnal Agroteknologi, 5(1), 29–34. Retrieved from Link

Purba, R. S., Irwan, S. N. R., & Putra, E. T. S. (2019). The effect of spent bleaching earth filler-based npk fertilization on proline, growth and yield of maize. Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 35(1), 44–53. Crossref

PUSDATIN KEMENTAN. (2018). Outlook kedelai komoditas pertanian subsektor tanaman pangan. Retrieved from Link

Putra, F. P., Yudono, P., & Waluyo, S. (2017). Growth and yield of upland rice under intercropping system with soybean in sandy coastal area. Ilmu Pertanian (Agricultural Science), 2(3), 130. Crossref

Rai, V., Vajpayee, P., Singh, S. N., & Mehrotra, S. (2004). Effect of chromium accumulation on photosynthetic pigments, oxidative stress defense system, nitrate reduction, proline level and eugenol content of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Plant Science, 167(5), 1159–1169. Crossref

Rauf, A., Merle Shepard, B., & Johnson, M. W. (2000). Leafminers in vegetables, ornamental plants and weeds in Indonesia: Surveys of host crops, species composition and parasitoids. International Journal of Pest Management, 46(4), 257–266. Crossref

Rosi, A., Roviq, M., & Nihayati, E. (2018). Pengaruh dosis pupuk NPK pada pertumbuhan dan hasil tiga varietas kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Jurnal Produksi Tanaman, 6(10), 2445–2452. Retrieved from Link

Soda, W., Noble, A. D., Suzuki, S., Simmons, R., Sindhusen, L. A., & Bhuthorndharaj, S. (2006). Co-composting of acid waste bentonites and their effects on soil properties and crop biomass. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35(6), 2293–2301. Crossref

Suhartini, S., Hidayat, N., & Wijaya, S. (2011). Physical properties characterization of fuel briquette made from spent bleaching earth. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(10), 4209–4214. Crossref

Sumarno, A., Widodo, E., Nugroho, A., Triastuti, & Suryanegara, L. (2017). Pemanfaatan limbah spent bleaching earth (sbe) dari industri pengolahan minyak kelapa sawit pada aplikasi bata beton. Seminar Lignoselulosa, 3(85), 40–44. Retrieved from Link

Sutoro, Dewi, N., & Setyowati, M. (2008). Hubungan sifat morfofisiologis tanaman dengan hasil kedelai. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, 27(3), 185–190. Retrieved from Link

Tunçtürk, M., Tunçtürk, R., Yildirim, B., & Çiftçi, V. (2011). Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient composition of some canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(10), 1827–1832. Crossref

Widyaswari, E., Santosa, M., & Maghfoer, M. D. (2017). Analisis pertumbuhan dua varietas tanaman padi (Oryza sativa L.) pada berbagai perlakuan pemupukan. Biotropika - Journal of Tropical Biology, 5(3), 73–77. Crossref

Zhuang, P., Li, Z. A., Zou, B., Xia, H. P., & Wang, G. (2013). Heavy metal contamination in soil and soybean near the Dabaoshan Mine, South China. Pedosphere, 23(3), 298–304. Crossref


  • There are currently no refbacks.