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Patrol Boat Strengthening Against a Collision with COLL Notation Based on Class Rules and Regulation in Indonesia - An Overview

Abid Paripurna Fuadi1*, Teguh Muttaqie1*, Andi Cahyo Prasetyo Tri Nugroho1, Yudiawan Fajar Kusuma1, Suherman Mukti2, Mohammad Arif Kurniawan3, Topan Firmandha3, Muhammad Ismail4
1 Research Center for Hydrodynamics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency, BRIN, Surabaya, Indonesia
2 Research Center for Energy Conversion and Conservation, BRIN, Banten, Indonesia
3 Research and Development Division, PT. Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia (Persero), Jakarta, Indonesia
4 Longitude Engineering, ABL Group, Southampton, United Kingdom
*Corresponding Author’s email address:,


Indonesian maritime security and law enforcement rely frequently on Patrol boats. However, collisions can occur during the operation, leading to potential loss of life, damage to the ship, and environmental harm. In preventing such incidents, the government needs to strengthen the patrol boats against collisions in accordance with class rules and regulations in Indonesia. The COLL notation is an additional notation for vessel collision protection, which specifies the required strength of the vessel's hull and structural components to minimize the risk of damage and reduce the consequences of a collision. This study highlights the key areas that require strengthening, including the vessel’s bow, stern, and hull, as well as the propulsion system that needs to be considered in the design stage. The addition of collision bulkheads, increasing the hull plating thickness, and reinforcing the engine mounts and shafting are also necessary to ensure the vessel's safety against collision. In conclusion, strengthening patrol boats against a collision with COLL notation based on class rules and regulations in Indonesia is one of the methods available that can be applied for the design stage to increase the level of operational safety of patrol boats.

Comparative Analysis of the Size of Glass Fiber Woven Roving based on a Polyester Matrix on the Impact Strength of Composite Materials

M. Fajar Lazuardy*, Muhammad Fakhruddin

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

*Corresponding Author’s:


Laminated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites are widely used in various industries, such as boat building, car bodies, water tanks and pipelines, which in their use sometimes have the potential to be exposed to impact loads, especially in transportation equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to perform an impact test to determine the toughness value of a composite material against impact loads. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of fibreglass woven roving (WR)/polyester composites produced by the compression moulding process to determine the toughness of the composite material concerning changes in weave size. This research uses variations of glass fibre woven roving in sizes of 200 gsm, 400 gsm, 600 gsm. The impact test was conducted following the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 6110-10. The impact test result showed that the lowest impact strength is found in a composite with a woven size of 200 gsm, which is 0.145 J/mm2, and the highest impact strength is found in composite with a woven size of 600 gsm, which is 0.280 J/mm2

Effect of Boundary Condition on Numerical Study of UAV Composite Skin Panels Under Dynamic Impact Loading

Ilham Bagus Wiranto1, Sherly Octavia Saraswati1, Iqbal Reza Alfikri1, Chairunnisa2,Fadli Cahya Megawanto3, Muhammad Ilham Adhynugraha3*, Nur Cholis Majid4

1 Research Center for Process and Manufacturing Industry Technology, BRIN, Banten, 15314, Indonesia
2 Research Center for Energy Conversion and Conservation, BRIN, Banten 15314, Indonesia
3 Research Center for Aeronautics Technology, BRIN, Bogor 16350, Indonesia
4 Mechanical Engineering Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author’s email address:


In this study, a dynamic impact loading using finite element analyses (FEA) was applied to a UAV composite skin panel. Two types of boundary condition panels were investigated (Fixed and Pinned). The composite UAV skin panel consists of upper panel and stiffener which have a thickness of 3 mm and 2 mm, respectively. The material properties used in this study was referring to Hexcel W3G282-F593 technical data sheet. A hemispherical steel indenter with 70 mm diameter and 120 kg of mass was used to crush the panel with a velocity of 4,43 m/s. The finite element analyses were performed using dynamic explicit solver in ABAQUS 6.23. At the beginning of study, the mesh convergence study was conducted to choose the proper mesh for main analysis. The convergence study was simulated using 20kg mass to shorten computational time. The mesh size of 10mm was chosen for the main analysis due to convergent result and short computational time compared to others mesh size. The impact deformation, contact force - displacement plot, and contact force – time plot was used to show the differences of using those boundary condition. The results show that fixed and pinned boundary condition reaches its contact force peak with the value of 29,2 kN and 22,8 kN, respectively.

Magnesium Addition and Treatment of Reinforcement Particles in Al6061 – Sea Sand Composite on Coefficients Friction and Wear Rate

Hammar Ilham Akbar1*, Muhammad Ilham Arbi Atmaja1, Eko Surojo1, Bambang Kusharjanta1, Reza Aldiansyah Fanani2

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

*Corresponding Author’s email address:


Aluminium Matrix Composite (AMC) is a composite material with an Al matrix and ceramic reinforcement particles such as SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiB2, ZrO2, SiO2, graphite, and even sea sand can be used as reinforcement to increase the tribological properties of composite. The process of manufacturing the Al6061-Sea sand composite used the stir casting method with a stirring time of 10 minutes and a speed of 600rpm. Stir casting specimens were manufactured with a height dimension of 20 mm and a diameter of 10 mm. After that, the specimen was friction tested using the pin on disc method. The highest coefficient of friction was the specimen without electroless coating with the addition of 2% wt Mg of 0.634. The more mass fraction of sea sand, the higher the porosity, and the lower the density. To increase the friction coefficient and reduce porosity, an electroless coating process can be carried out on the reinforcing particles. This study aims to determine the effect of the addition of Mg and treatment of reinforcing particles on the Al6061-Sea sand composite on the coefficient of friction and wear rate. The coefficient of friction, the density of the specimen increased, the porosity and the wear rate, decreased. This occurred because the reinforcement particle size of sea sand bonded more strongly to the aluminium matrix. The highest coefficient of friction was the electroless coating with the addition of 2% wt Mg of sea sand, which was 0.646.