Shielding parameters of leaded cement mortar

Yassin A. Abdel-Razek


The Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) represent more than 70% of global e-waste sets. The glass of the CRT is doped with lead to prevent emission of radiations especially electrons. The glass at the panel and neck of the CRT along with the cement mortar, a mixture of 70% neck glass and 30% cement (mix70), are investigated mathematically as shielding materials from photons having energies in the range 0.06-3 (MeV). Experimentally the material mix70 is tested at energies 0.238 and 0.583 (MeV). Good agreement was recognized between the calculated shielding parameters and that obtained experimentally while complete equality between the calculated parameters carried out using the online XCom software or Phy-X software except at low energies for concrete material. Glass from panel, neck and mix70 have acceptable shielding characteristics at and below the energy 0.238 (MeV) or generally at the X-ray region. Neck glass has good shielding parameters at the chosen energy region and it is nominated as a shielding material for many nuclear applications. To enhance the shielding characteristics of the material mix70 it should be compacted during preparation to get higher density. The present work tested the shielding properties of leaded glass composites to find out its integrity for practical shielding applications and radiological safety.


CRT Recycle, E-waste, Cement mortar, Leaded glass, shielding, attenuation coefficient, XCom, Phy-X

Full Text:



Andreola, F., Barbieri, L., Corradi, A., Lancellotti, I., 2007. CRT glass state of the art a case study: recycling in ceramic glazes. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27, 1623–1629.

Nnorom, I.C., Osibanjo, O., Ogwuegbu, M.O.C., 2011. Global disposal strategies for waste cathode ray tubes. Resour. Resour. Conserv. Recy. 55 (3), 275–290.

Gable C, Sirman B. Computer and electronics product stewardship: Are we ready for the challenge [J]. Environmental Quality Management, 2010, 11(1): 35−45.

Mueller J R, Boehm M W, Drummond C. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication [J]. Waste Management, 2012, 32(8): 1560−1565.

Xing, M., Wang, J., Fu, Z., Zhang, D., Wang, Y., Zhang, Z., 2018. Extraction of heavy metal (Ba, Sr) and high silica glass powder synthesis from waste CRT panel glasses by phase separation. J. Hazard. Mater. 347, 8–14.

Xu, Q., Li, G., He, W., Huang, J., Shi, X., 2012. Cathode ray tube (CRT) recycling: current capabilities in China and research progress. Waste Manag. 32, 1566–1574.

Balde C, Wang F, Kuehr R, Huisman J. The global e-waste monitor–2014 [R]. Bonn: United Nations University, 2015.

Mear F, Yot P, Cambon M, Ribes M. The characterization of waste cathode-ray tube glass [J]. Waste Management, 2005, 26(12): 1468−1476.

Ling Tung-chai, Poon Chi-sun, Lam Wai-shung, CHAN Tai-po, FUNG K K. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications [J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2011, 199(2): 321−327.

Gong, Y., Tian, X.M., Wu, Y.F., Tan, Z., Lv, L., 2016. Recent development of recycling lead from scrap CRTs: a technological review. Waste Manag. 57, 176–186.

Yamashita, M., Wannagon, A., Matsumoto, S., Akai, T., Sugita, H., Imoto, Y., Komai, T.,Sakanakura, H., 2010. Leaching behavior of CRT funnel glass. J. Hazard. Mater. 184, 58–64.

Feng Ning-chuan, Guo Xue-yi. Characterization of adsorptive capacity and mechanisms on adsorption of copper, lead and zinc by modified orange peel [J]. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2012, 22(5): 1224−1231.

Song Jie, Guo Zhao-hui, Xiao Xi-yuan, Miao Xu-feng, Wang Feng-yong. Environmental availability and profile characteristics of arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated vegetable soils [J]. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2009, 19(3): 765−772.

Jiang Bo-feng, Sun Wei-ling. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in sediments from Xiangjiang River (China) using sequential extraction and lead isotope analysis [J]. Journal of Central South University, 2014, 21(6): 2349−2358.

Hu, B., Hui, W., 2018. Lead recovery from waste CRT funnel glass by high-temperature melting process. J. Hazard. Mater. 343, 220–226.

LV Jian-fang, YANG Hong-ying, JIN Zhe-nan, MA Zhi-yuan, SONG Yan. Feasibility of lead extraction from waste cathode-ray-tubes (CRT) funnel glass through a lead smelting process [J]. Waste Management, 2016, 57: 198−206.

Walczak, P., Małolepszy, J., Reben, M., Rzepa, K., 2015. Mechanical properties of concrete mortar based on mixture of CRT glass cullet and fluidized fly ash. ProcediaEng. 108, 453–458.

Zhao, H., Poon, C.S., Ling, T.C., 2013. Utilizing recycled cathode ray tube funnel glass sand as river sand replacement in the high-density concrete. J. Clean. Prod. 51,184–190.

Akkurt, I., Akyıldırım, H., Mavi, B., Kilincarslan, S., Basyigit, C., 2010. Radiation shielding of concrete containing zeolite. Radiat. Meas. 45, 827–830.

Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., Lam, W.S., Chan, T.P., Fung, K.K.. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. J Hazard Mater. 2012 Jan 15;199-200:321-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.11.019. Epub 2011 Nov 10. PMID: 22118845.

Meng, Y., Ling, T.C., Mo, K.H., 2018. Recycling of wastes for value-added applications in concrete blocks: an overview. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 138, 298–312.

Waly, E.S.A., Fusco, M.A., Bourham, M.A., 2017. Impact of specialty glass and concrete on gamma shielding in multi-layered PWR dry casks. Prog. Nucl. Energy 94, 64–70.

Jang Y C, Townsend T G. Leaching of lead from computer printed wire boards and cathode ray tubes by municipal solid waste landfill leachates [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2003, 37(20): 4778−4784.

XU Qing-bo, LI Guang-ming, HE Wen-zhi, HUANG Ju-wen, SHI Xiang. Cathode ray tube (CRT) recycling: Current capabilities in China and research progress [J]. Waste Management, 2012, 32(8): 1566−1574.

Mostaghel S, Samuelsson C. Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) [J]. Waste Manag, 2009, 30(1): 140−144.

Andreola F, Barbieri L, Corradi A, Ferrari A M, Lancellotti, Neri P. Recycling of EOL CRT glass into ceramic glaze formulations and its environmental impact by LCA approach [M]. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2007, 12(6): 448−454.

Laopaiboon, R., Bootjomchai, C., Chanphet, M., Laopaiboon, J., 2011. Elastic properties investigation of gamma-radiated barium lead borosilicate glasses using ultrasonic technique. Ann. Nucl. Energy 38, 2333–2337.

Gong Yu, Tian Xiang-miao, Wu Yu-feng, Tan Zhe, LV Lei. Recent development of recycling lead from scrap CRTs: A technological review [J]. Waste Management, 2016, 57: 176−186.

Okada T, Yonezawa S. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass[J]. Waste Management, 2013, 33(8): 1758−1763.

Yuan Wen-yi, Li Jin-hui, Zhang Qi-wu, Saito F, Yang Bo. Lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass with mechanical activation [J]. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 2013, 63(1): 2−10.

Lara, C., Pascual, M.J., Duran, A., 2004. Glass-forming ability, sinterability and thermal properties in the systems RO–BaO–SiO2 (R ¼ Mg, Zn). J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348,149–155.

Rai, M., Mountjoy, G., 2014. Molecular dynamics modelling of the structure of barium silicate glasses BaO-SiO2. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 401, 159–163.

Hreglch S, Falcone R, Vallotto M. The recycling of end-of-life panel glass from TV sets in glass fibres and ceramic productions [M]. London: Thomas Telford Publishing, 2001.

Gregory J R, Nadeau M C, Kirchain R E. Evaluating the economic viability of a material recovery system: The case of cathode ray tube glass [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009, 43(24): 9245−9251.

Ling Tung-chai, Poon Chi-sun. Use of recycled CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in dry-mixed concrete paving blocks [J]. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2014, 68(2): 209−215.

Rachad A M. Recycled waste glass as fine aggregate replacement in cementitious materials based on Portland cement [J]. Construction & Building Materials, 2014, 72: 340−357.

Liu Tie-jun, Song Wen, Zou Du-jian, Li Lei. Dynamic mechanical analysis of cement mortar prepared with recycled cathode ray tube (CRT) glass as fine aggregate [J]. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2018, 174: 1436−1443.

Sikora P, Horszczaruk E, Rucinsca T. The effect of nanosilica and titanium dioxide on the mechanical and self-cleaning properties of waste−glass cement mortar [J]. Procedia Engineering, 2015, 108: 146−153.

Yao Zhi-tong, Ling Tung-chai, Sarker P K, Su Wei-ping, Liu Jie, Wu Wei-hong, Tang Jun-hong. Recycling difficult-to-treat e-waste cathode-ray-tube glass as construction and building materials: A critical review [J]. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2017, 81: 595−604.

Polimaster (2011). PM 1704 Built-In Software Guide, First edition, July 2011, Russia.

Sadasivan, S. and Raghunath, V. M. (1982). Intensities of Gamma Rays in the 232Th Decay Chain. Nuclear Instruments and Methods 196, 561-563. Letter to the editor.

Şakar, Erdem, Özpolat,Özgür Fırat, Alım, Bünyamin, Sayyed, M.I., Kurudirek, Murat (2020). Phy-X / PSD: Development of a user friendly online software for calculation of parameters relevant to radiation shielding and dosimetry. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 166, 108496.

Berger, M.J., Hubbell, J.H. (1999) XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Data Base, Web version, 1.2. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg (1999) (Originally published as NBSIR 87-3597 “XCOM: Photon cross sections on a personal computer”).

Mann, Kulwinder Singh, Rani, Asha, Heer, Manmohan Singh (2015). Shielding behaviors of some polymer and plastic materials for gamma-rays. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 106, 247-254.

Knoll, G.F. (2000): Radiation Detection and Measurement. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 802p.

Abdel-Razek, Yassin A. (2019): Calculation of the Shielding Parameters of Some Natural Minerals. J. Rad. Nucl. Appl. 4, No. 2, 133-138.

Hager,I., Rammah, Y., Othman, H., Ibrahim, E., Hassan, S., Sallam, F. (2019). Nano-structured natural bentonite clay coated by polyvinyl alcohol polymer for gamma rays attenuation, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics., 13, 141–153.

Zughbi, A., Kharita, M.H., Shehada, A.M. (2017). Determining optical and radiation characteristics of cathode ray tubes' glass to be reused as radiation shielding glass. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 136, 71–74.

Ce, A., Champagnon, B., Martinez, V., Maksimov, L., Yanush, O., Bogdanov, V.N., 2006. xPbO–(1−x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification. Opt. Mater. 28, 1301–1304.

Othman, H.A., Elkholy, H.S., Hager, I.Z., 2016. FTIR of binary lead borate glass: structural investigation. J. Mol. Struct. 1106, 286–290. 2015.10.076.

Hafiz, M. S., Othman, H.A., Kawady, N. A., Hager,I. Z., El-Feky, M. G., El-Samman, H. M. (2021). Structural Properties and Gamma Rays Shielding of TeO2-B2O3-PbO Glass System. J. Rad. Nucl. Appl. 6, No. 1, 31-38.

Aloraini, Dalal Abdullah, Sayyed, M.I., Almuqrin, Aljawhara A.H., Kumar, Ashok, Khazaalah, Thair Hussein, Yasmin, Sabina, Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, Baki, S.O. (2022). Preparation, radiation shielding and mechanical characterization of PbO–TeO2–MgO–Na2O–B2O3 glasses. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 198, 110254.


  • There are currently no refbacks.