Plasma Characteristics of Under-water Arc Discharge in Nanoparticle Fabrication

Athaya Cantia Putri, Miftahul Anwar, Irwan Iftadi, Agus Ramelan, Feri Adrianto, Teguh Endah Saraswati


Synthetic nanoparticles are the process of making particles with a size of less than 100 nm and changing the properties of the material so that it can be improved to improve the usability of new products. One method that can be used is the arc discharge method in water, which is a synthetic method of nanoparticles, which is very simple because it does not require complicated equipment. This study uses graphene as an electrode, which is then immersed in water and mounted horizontally. Current and voltage monitoring is carried out during the arc discharge process using a Hall-based current sensor and the voltage is measured directly between the two electrodes. Variations in input current of 10A, 40A, 70A, and 100A affect the arc formed, current and voltage, and ionization energy. Monitoring with OES is also carried out to determine the shape of the plasma, and the wavelength when the arc occurs. The results obtained that the current has more effective and optimal results in synthesizing nanoparticles.

Full Text:



I. Safarik and M. Safarikova. "Magnetic nano- and microparticles in biotechnology". Chemical Papers, Voulume 63, Issue 5, pp. 497–505, 25 August 2009. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-009-0054-2

L. Kedzierski, J. M. Curtis, P. C. Doherty, E. Handman, and K. Kedzierska. "Decreased IL-10 and IL-13 production and increased CD44hi T cell recruitment contribute to Leishmania major immunity induced by non-persistent parasites". European Journal of Immunology, Volume 38, Issue 11, pp. 3090-3100, 7 November 2008. DOI: 10.1002/eji.200838423

S. Sankararaman and M. S. Swapna. "Synthesis And Characterization Of Carbon Nanoparticles By Combustion Method". Thesis for M.Phil Degree, University of Kerala, Department of Opto-electronics, August 2018.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov. "Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films". Science, Volume 306, Issue 5696, pp. 666-669, 22 October 2004. DOI: 10.1126/science.1102896

P. K. R. Nair, B. M. Kumar, and V. D. Nair, "Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration", Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Volume 172, Issue 1, pp. 10–23, February 2009. DOI: 10.1002/jpln.200800030

A. B. Kuzmenko, E. V. Heumen, F. Carbone, and D. V. D. Marel. "Universal Optical Conductance of Graphite". Volume 100, Issue 11, pp. 117401-1-117401-4, 21 March 2008. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.117401

E. Njatawidjaja, A. T. Sugiarto, T. Ohshima, M. Sato. "Decoloration of electrostatically atomized organic dye by the pulsed streamer corona discharge". Journal of Electrostatics, Volume 63, Issue 5, pp. 353-359, May 2005. DOI: 10.1016/j.elstat.2004.12.001

M. Abdullah, Y. Virgus, Nirmin, dan Khairurrijal. "On the basic concept of nanotechnology". Jurnal Nanosains dan Nanoteknologi, Volume 1, Nomor 2, pp. 33-57, Juli 2008. ISSN 1979-0880

S. Griffin, M. I. Masood, M. J. Nasim, M. Sarfraz, A. P. Ebokaiwe, K. H. Schäfer, C. M. Keck, and C. Jacob. "Natural Nanoparticles: A Particular Matter Inspired by Nature". Antioxidants, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2018. DOI:10.3390/antiox7010003

M. Loos. "Production of CNTs and Risks to Health". Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composites, pp. 103–123, 2015. DOI:10.1016/b978-1-4557-3195-4.00004-7

D.A. Mylnikov, A.A. Efimov, V.V. Ivanov, Investigation of the energy balance in the spark discharge generator for nanoparticles synthesis, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 830 (2017), 012162,

X. Gang, J. S.-li, and S. Z.-qian, "The production of carbon nano-materials by arc discharge under water or liquid nitrogen". New Carbon Materials, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp. 337–341, December 2007. DOI: 10.1016/S1872-5805(08)60005-0.

B. Qin, T. Zhang, H. Chen, and Y. Ma. "The growth mechanism of few-layer graphene in the arc discharge process". Carbon, Volume 102, pp. 494-498, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.02.074

S. Yatom, J. Bak, A. Khrabryi, and Y. Raitses. "Detection of nanoparticles in carbon arc discharge with laser-induced incandescence". Carbon, Volume 117, pp. 154-162, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2017.02.055

F. Su, X. Qiu, F. Liang, M. Tanaka, T. Qu, Y. Yao, W. Ma, B. Yang, Y. Dai, K. Hayashi, and T. Watanabe. "Preparation of Nickel Nanoparticles by Direct Current Arc Discharge Method and Their Catalytic Application in Hybrid Na-Air Battery". Nanomaterials, Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2018. DOI: 10.3390/nano8090684.

F. Andhika, S. Hastuti, and T. E. Saraswati. "The surface characteristics of carbon nanoparticles produced via submerged arc discharge in ethanol/water". AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 2296, pp. 020069-1-020069-6, 16 November 2020. DOI: 10.1063/5.0031109

A. Miftahul, T. E. Saraswati, L. Anjarwati, D. Moraru, A. Udhiarto, F. Adriyanto, H. Mghfiroh, and R. Nuryadi. "Probing Ionization Characteristics of Under and Voltage Versus Time Measurement In Carbon Nano Particle Synthesis”. Journal Micro and Nano Engineering 14 (2022) 10009, 11 December 2021.

J.W. Coburn, M. Chen, Optical emission spectroscopy of reactive plasmas: a method for correlating emission intensities to reactive particle density, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (6) (1980) 3134–3136,

G. Thakur, R. Khanal, B. Narayan, Characterization of arc plasma by movable single and double langmuir probes, Fusion Sci. Technol. 75 (4) (2019) 324–329,

S.-Y. Yoon, H. Jeon, C. Yi, S. Park, S. Ryu, S.B. Kim, Mutual interaction between plasma characteristics and liquid properties in AC driven pin-to-liquid discharge, Sci. Rep. 8 (1) (2018) 12037,

S. Gershman, A. Belkind, Electrical discharge in gas bubbles in gel, J. Appl. Phys. 128 (13) (2020), 133302,

E. Corella Puertas, A. Dzafic, S. Coulombe, Investigation of the electrode erosion in pin-to-liquid discharges and its influence on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in plasma-activated water, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 40 (1) (2020) 145–167,

S. Basnet, R.R. Pokhrel, R. Khanal, Characteristics of magnetized dusty plasma sheath with two ion species and q-nonextensive electrons, IEEE T. Plasma Sci. 49 (4) (2021) 1268–1277,

Y. Han, Y. Liu, F. Lin, Z. Li, Q. Luo, Experimental investigation of arc formation and bubble expansion initiated by pulse discharge in water, in: 2015 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (PPC), IEEE Explore, 2015, pp. 1–5, PPC.2015.7296930.


  • There are currently no refbacks.