Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extract of Java Plum Seeds

Rohadi Rohadi, Iswoyo Iswoyo, Dewi Larasati, Sugili Putra


The synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) has been widely added to lipids and food products as a preservative due to inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, concerns have arisen about the potential health impacts of this synthetic antioxidant on consumers. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative substitute for BHA that is safe for human health. The methanolic extract of Java Plum seeds (MEJS) contains a diverse group of phenolic compounds and has the potential to serve as a natural antioxidant. The antioxidant must remain stable during food processing, such as irradiation. This research aimed to determine the effect of γ-irradiation on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of MEJS. When γ-irradiation was applied to MEJS at doses up to 12.5 kGy, there was a slight decrease in total phenolic and tannin content but a significant increase in total flavonoid content. This increase in total flavonoids led to a rise in both free radical scavenging and reducing power activities

Full Text:



  1. Vayupharap, B. and Laksanalamal, V. Recovery of Antioxidant from Grape Seeds and its Application in Fried Food. Journal Food Process Technology. 2012; 3(4):1-6.
  2. Shahidi, F. and Ambigaipalan, P. Phenolics and polyphenolics ini foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidant activity and health effects-A review. Journal of functional foods. 2015; 18:820-897. www.sciencedirect.com.
  3. National Toxicology Program. National Toxicology Program 14th Report on Carsinogens. Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens. August, 14th 2019. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/listed_substances_508.pdf.
  4. Swami, S.B., Thakor, N.S.J., Patil, M.M. and Haldankar, P.M. Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.): A Review of Its Food and Medicinal Uses. Food and Nutrition Science. 2012, 3:1100-1117.
  5. Rydlewski, A. A. de Morais, D.R., Rotta, E.M., Clause, T. and Visentainer, J.V. Determination of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and physical and chemical composition of different parts of four Brazilian fruits. Colombo, Brazil: State University of Maringa, Postgraduate Program. 2013.
  6. Rohadi, Santoso, U., Raharjo, S., Falah, I.I. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Compounds of Methanolic Extract of Java Plum (Syzygium cumini Linn. (Skeel) Seed. Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress. 2017b ; 13(1): 9-20.
  7. Benherlal, P.S. and Arumughan, C. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2007; 87(14):2560-2569. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.2957.
  8. Vasi, S. and Austin, A. Antioxidants Potential of Eugenia jambolana Lam. Seeds. Journal of Biological Sciences. 2009; 9(8):894-898.
  9. Peixoto, M.P.G and Freitas, L.A.P. Spray-dried extracts from Syzygium cumini seed: physicochemical and biological evaluation. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 2012; 23(1): 145-152.
  10. Rohadi, Sri Raharjo, Iip Izul Falah, and Umar Santoso. Antioxidant Activity of Duwet (Syzygium cumini Linn.) Extract on Lipid Peroxidation in Vitro. J. Agritech. 2016; 36(1):30-37.
  11. Rohadi, Raharjo, S., Falah, I.I., and Santoso, U. 2017a. Methanolic extract of Java Plum (Syzygium cumini Linn) Seed as natural antioxidant on lipid oxidation of oil-in water emulsions. International Food Research Journal, 24(4):1636-1643.
  12. Rohadi, Iswoyo, Dewi Larasati. Antioxidant Stability of Methanolic Java Plum (Syzygium cumini) Seed Extract over Buffer Solution. Conference, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, 2019; 2:514-521. e-ISSN:2654-3168, p-ISSN: 2654-3257. http://prosiding.unimus.ac.id
  13. Mielnik, M.B., Olsen, E., Vogt, G., Adeline, D. dan Skrede, G. Grape seed extract as antioxidant in cooked, cold storage turkey meat. Elsevier, LWT. 2006; 39:191-198.
  14. Saha, R.K., Zaman, N.M., and Roy, P. Comparative evaluation of the medicinal activities of methanolic extract of seed, fruit pulp and fresh juice of Syzygium cumini in vitro. Journal of coastal Medicine. 2013; 1(4):288-296.
  15. Reda, S.Y. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas. 2011; 31(2): 475-480. ISSN 0101-2061.
  16. Gumus, T., Albayrak, S., Sagdic, O., and Arici, M. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On Total Phenolic Contents And Antioxidant Activities Of Satureja Hortensis, Thymus Vulgaris, and Thymbra Spicata From Turkey. International Journal of Food Properties, 2011; 14:830-839. ISSN: 1094-2912 print / 1532-2386. DOI: 10.1080/10942910903453397.
  17. Mali, A.B., Khedkar, K., and Lele, Smita S. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Total Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peels. Food and Nutrition Science. 2011; 2:428-433.doi: 10.4236/fns. 2011. 25060. (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/fns).
  18. Song, Eu J., Ah Ram Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri Kim, So young Le, Jin Gyu Park, Jae Hun Kim, Jong Il Choi, Ju Woon Lee, Myung Woo Byun and Dong Hyun Ahn. Effect of ϒ-Irradiation on Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Color of Ecklonia cava. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2011; 20(3): 593-599. DOI 10.1007/s10068-011-0084-8.
  19. Latimer, G.W, Jr. AOAC official methods ofanalysis. 18th ed. Maryland: AOAC International. 2005.
  20. Ebrahimzadeh, M.Al., Khalili, M., and Dehpour Abbas Ali. Antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of two marine algae Nannochloropsis oculata and Gracilaria gracilis an in vitro assay. Brazilian journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2015; 54(1): ISSN 2175-9790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902018000117280.
  21. Palici, I., Tita, B., Ursica, L. dan Tita, D. Method for Quantitative Determination of Polyphenolic Compounds and Tannins from Vegetal Products. Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis Seria F. Chemia. 2005; 8:21-32.
  22. Abdeltaif, S.A., SirElkhatim, K.A. and Hassan, A.B. Estimation of Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Spent Coffee and Black Tea (Processing) Waste for Potential Recovery and Reuse in Sudan. Recycling, Recycling. 2018; 3(27): 1-9. doi:10.3390/recycling3020027.
  23. Fattahi, S., Zabihi, E., Abedian, Z., Pourbagher, R., Motevalizadeh, A.A., Mostafazadeh A., and Akhavan-Niaki, H. Total phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Aqueous Extract of Stinging Nettle and In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect on Hela and BT-474 Cell Lines. International Journal of Molecular and Cellular Medicine. 2014;3(2):102-107. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4082812/.
  24. Kumari, N., Kumar, P., Prasad, B., Tiwary, B.N. and Varshney, L. Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Microbial Decontamination, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties of Triphala. Journal of Food Science. 2009; 74(3): M109-M1113. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01079.x.
  25. Khattak, K.F., Simpson, T.J. and Ihasnullah. Effect of gamma irradiation on the extraction yield, total phenolic content and free radical-scavenging activity of Nigella staiva seed. Food Chemistry. 2008; 110(4):967-972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.003.
  26. Tseng, Yu-Hsiu and Mau, Jeng-Leun. Antioxidant properties of cold water extracts from Ganoderma tsugae. Fung. Sci. 2007; 22(1, 2):13–23.
  27. Naveed, S., Rizwan, E. and Sajid, A. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Phytochemical Content and Antimicrobial Activities of Selected Herbs. ChemXpress. 2018; 11(1):1-15. ISSN. 2320-1975. www.tsijournals.com.
  28. Pereira, Celestino Santos-Buelga Eliana, Antonio, L.B.A., Ferreira S.C.V.I.C.F.R. and Rodriques, P. Is Gamma Radiation Suitable to Preserve Phenolic Compounds and to Decontaminate Mycotoxins in Aromatic Plants? A Case-study with Aloysia citrodora Palau. Molecule. 2017; 22(347):1-13. doi:10.3390/molecules22030347.
  29. 29. Sari, B.L., Rahayu, D.P., Rohdiana, D., Nurlita, S. and Sahara, P.S. Influence of Gamma Ray Irradiation on Total Flavonoid and Tannin Content of White Tea (C. sinensis L.) and Loranthus of Tea (Scurulla atropurpurea BL. Dans). Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia. 2018; 8(1): 1-9. DOI :10.22435/jki.v8i1.6416.1-9.p-ISSN: 2085-675X. e-ISSN: 2354-8770.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.20961/jbb.v3i1.71721


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Print ISSN: 2775-5223
Online ISSN: 2808-3229
Website: https://jurnal.uns.ac.id/jbb
Email: jurnal.biotek.biodiv@mail.uns.ac.id
Published by: Universitas Sebelas Maret
Jl. Ir. Sutami Street, No. 36A, Surakarta, Jawa Tengah 57126