Kartini Kartini, Rahmi Nur Islami, Sulistya Rini Pratiwi, Meylin Rahmawati, Retno Dwi Arini


This study aims to determine whether or not sigma convergence, whether absolute and conditional convergence occurs or not, and to determine the convergence speed. This study uses secondary data, namely Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) per capita, poverty, and inequality for each province in Indonesia from 2017-2021. The method used in this study is panel data with a fixed effect approach. The results of the analysis using the sigma convergence (σ) approach show the occurrence of convergence. The results of the absolute convergence analysis explain the divergence of GRDP per capita in Indonesia with a divergence speed of 13.76% per year. The results of the conditional convergence analysis show that there is a divergence of GRDP per capita in Indonesia with a divergence speed of 13.62% per year.


Convergence; Growth

Full Text:



Akita, T. (2002) ‘Income Inequality in Indonesia’, IUJ Research Institute Working Paper 2002-2 International Development Series, 38(12630073).

Atmasari, N. M., Priyono, T. H. and Viphindrartin, S. (2020) ‘Konvergensi Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Kota dan Kabupaten Klaster Metropolitan Jawa Timur’, e-Journal Ekonomi Bisnis dan Akuntansi, 7(2), p. 91. doi: 10.19184/ejeba.v7i2.17867.

Barro, R. J. and Sala-i-Martin, X. X. (1992) ‘Convergence Xavier Sala-i-Martin’, Journal of Political Economy, 100(2), pp. 223–251. doi: 10.1086/261816.

Barro, R. J. and Sala-I-Martin, X. X. (1990) ‘Economic growth and convergence across the United States’, National Bureau of Economic Research, (August), p. 61. doi: 10.3386/w3419.

Chatarina Anggi Ayu Yulisningrum (2015) ‘Analisis Konvergensi Pertumbuhan Ekononomi Indonesia tahun 1992-2012’, Jurnal ilmu ekonomi.

Das, S. et al. (2013) ‘Remoteness and Unbalanced Growth: Understanding Divergence Across Indian Districts’, (268).

Gama, A. S. (2012) ‘Disparitas dan Konvergensi Produk Domestik Regional Bruto (PDRB) Perkapita Antar Kabupaten/Kota Di Provinsi Bali’, INPUT Jurnal Ekonomi dan Sosial, 2(1), pp. 38–48. Available at:

Garcia, J. G. and Soelistianingsih, L. (1998) ‘Why do differences in provincial incomes persist in Indonesia?’, Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 34(1), pp. 95–120. doi: 10.1080/00074919812331337290.

Jawaid, S. T. and Raza, S. A. (2012) ‘Workers’ Remittances and Economic Growth in South Asia’, (39001).

Lumir, K. (2012) ‘Munich Personal RePEc Archive Real convergence in Central and Eastern European EU member states’, (39822).

Prasasti, D. (2006) ‘Perkembangan Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Per Kapita 30 Provinsi Di Indonesia Periode 1993-2003’, Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Indonesia, 21(4), pp. 344–360.

De Silva, I. and Sumarto, S. (2014) ‘Does Economic Growth Really Benefit the Poor? Income Distribution Dynamics and Pro-poor Growth in Indonesia’, Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 50(2), pp. 227–242. doi: 10.1080/00074918.2014.938405.

Sodik, J. and Iskandar, D. (2007) ‘Peran Karakteristik Regional Di Indonesia’, Jurnal Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan, 8(2), pp. 117–129. Available at:

Sugiharti, L. et al. (2022) ‘Poverty Dynamics in Indonesia: The Prevalence and Causes of Chronic Poverty’, Journal of Population and Social Studies, 30(February), pp. 423–447. doi: 10.25133/JPSSv302022.025.

Tadjoeddin, M. Z., Suharyo, W. I. and Mishra, S. (2001) ‘Regional disparity and vertical conflict in Indonesia’, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 6(3), pp. 283–304. doi: 10.1080/13547860120097368.

Vidyattama, B. P. . R. and Y. (2006) ‘Regional Income Disparity in Indonesia : A Panel Data ASEAN Economic Bulletin , Vol . 23 , No . 1 , Riding Along a Bumpy Road : Indonesian Economy in an Emerging’, 23(1), pp. 31–44. doi: 10.1355/ae23-lc.

Wahyunadi, W. (2019) ‘Konvergensi Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Di Nusa Tenggara Barat Periode Tahun 2010 – 2015’, Elastisitas - Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan, 1(2), pp. 79–90. doi: 10.29303/e-jep.v1i2.9.

Wibisono, Y. (2003) ‘Konvergensi di Indonesia, Beberapa Temuan Awal dan Implikasinya’, Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Indonesia, 3(2), pp. 139–153. doi: 10.21002/jepi.v3i2.622.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Applied Economics in Developing Countries

Journal of Applied Economics in Developing Countries
Master of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business
Universitas Sebelas Maret
Jl. Ir Sutami 36 A Surakarta, 57126 Indonesia
Telp: +62271-647481