Performance Characterization of 450 nm Visible Light Based Photoacoustic Imaging for Phantom Imaging of Synthetic Dye Contrast Agents

Mahendra Kusuma Nugraha, Moh. Ali Joko Wasono, Mitrayana Mitrayana


Performance characterization of 450 nm visible light photoacoustic imaging has been carried out through phantom imaging of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and methyl red (MR) dye solutions. The phantom was made of a nylon tube with a diameter of 5.0 mm (outside) and 4.6 mm (inside) having a height of 2.0 mm along with a 6×6 cm black galvanized aluminum plate as the background medium. The nylon tube was filled with each type of solution with varying molecular concentrations of 10, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Twelve (12) phantom objects were imaged in an area of 10×10 cm. The visible absorption peak known from UV-Visible spectroscopy for each type of solution is at 664 nm (methylene blue), 465 nm (methyl orange), and 522 nm (methyl red). It was also known that the amplitude of PA emissions would increase proportionally to the concentration of dye molecules. Overall, methyl orange solutions had the highest photoacoustic emission amplitude distribution. The analysis showed that the ratio of inner diameter (ID) and wall thickness (WT) between the MB and MO phantom images to the original object were 1:0.83 and 1:0.74 (ID) and 1:3 and 1:1.5 (WT), respectively. On the other hand, the ratio of the outer diameter (OD) of the MR phantom image to the original object is 1:1.28. 


photoacoustic imaging; visible light; diode laser; phantom; photoacoustic contrast agent; dye solution

Full Text:



1 Zhu, Y., Xu, G., Yuan, J., Jo, J., Gandikota, G., Demirci, H., Agano, T., Sato, N., Shigeta, Y., & Wang, X. 2018. Light emitting diodes based photoacoustic imaging and potential clinical applications. Sci. Rep., 8 (1), 1–12.

2 Attia, A. B. E., Balasundaram, G., Moothanchery, M., Dinish, U. S., Bi, R., Ntziachristos, V., & Olivo, M. 2019. A review of clinical photoacoustic imaging: Current and future trends. Photoacoustics, 16, 100144.

3 Steinberg, I., Huland, D. M., Vermesh, O., Frostig, H. E., Tummers, W. S., & Gambhir, S. S. 2019. Photoacoustic clinical imaging. Photoacoustics, 14, 77–98.

4 Erfanzadeh, M., & Zhu, Q. 2019. Photoacoustic imaging with low-cost sources; A review. Photoacoustics, 14, 1–11.

5 Weber, J., Beard, P. C., & Bohndiek, S. E. 2016. Contrast agents for molecular photoacoustic imaging. Nat. Methods., 13 (8), 639–650.

6 Widyaningrum, R., Agustina, D., Mudjosemedi, M., & Mitrayana. 2018. Photoacoustic for oral soft tissue imaging based on intensity modulated continuous-wave diode laser. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., 8 (2), 622–627.

7 Bungart, B. L., Lan, L., Wang, P., Li, R., Koch, M. O., Cheng, L., Masterson, T.A., Dundar, M., & Cheng, J. X. 2018. Photoacoustic tomography of intact human prostates and vascular texture analysis identify prostate cancer biopsy targets. Photoacoustics, 11, 46–55.

8 Capozza, M., Blasi, F., Valbusa, G., Oliva, P., Cabella, C., Buonsanti, F., Cordaro, A., Pizzuto, L., Maiocchi, A., & Poggi, L. 2018. Photoacoustic imaging of integrin-overexpressing tumors using a novel ICG-based contrast agent in mice. Photoacoustics, 11, 36–45.

9 Zhong, H., Duan, T., Lan, H., Zhou, M., & Gao, F. 2018. Review of Low-Cost Photoacoustic Sensing and Imaging Based on Laser Diode and Light-Emitting Diode. Sensors MDPI, 18 (2264), 1–24.

10 Kalva, S. K., Upputuri, P. K., Rajendran, P., Dienzo, R. A., & Pramanik, M. 2019. Pulsed Laser Diode-Based Desktop Photoacoustic Tomography for Monitoring Wash-In and Wash-Out of Dye in Rat Cortical Vasculature. J. Vis. Exp., 147, 1–6.

11 Upputuri, P. K., & Pramanik, M. 2018. Fast photoacoustic imaging systems using pulsed laser diodes: a review. Biomed. Eng. Lett., 8 (2), 167–181.

12 Luke, G. P., Yeager, D., & Emelianov, S. Y. 2012. Biomedical applications of photoacoustic imaging with exogenous contrast agents. Ann. Biomed. Eng., 40 (2), 422–437.

13 Wu, D., Huang, L., Jiang, M. S., & Jiang, H. 2014. Contrast Agents for Photoacoustic and Thermoacoustic Imaging: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 15 (12), 23616–23639.

14 Gao, F., Kishor, R., Feng, X., Liu, S., Ding, R., Zhang, R., & Zheng, Y. 2017. An analytical study of photoacoustic and thermoacoustic generation efficiency towards contrast agent and film design optimization. Photoacoustics, 7, 1–11.

15 Hariri, A., Lemaster, J., Wang, J., Jeevarathinam, A. K. S., Chao, D. L., & Jokerst, J. V. 2018. The characterization of an economic and portable LED-based photoacoustic imaging system to facilitate molecular imaging. Photoacoustics, 9, 10–20.

16 Arconada-Alvarez, S. J., Lemaster, J. E., Wang, J., & Jokerst, J. V. 2017. The development and characterization of a novel yet simple 3D printed tool to facilitate phantom imaging of photoacoustic contrast agents. Photoacoustics, 5, 17–24.

17 Falaras, P., Arabatzis, I. M., Stergiopoulos, T., & Bernard, M. C. 2003. Enhanced Activity of Silver Modified Thin-Film TiO2 Photocatalysts. Int. J. Photoenergy, 5 (3), 123–13.