Soil Drenching with Silicon Improves the Adaptive Response of Tobacco Cultivation under Excess Water Condition

Almansyah Nur Sinatrya, Sigit Soeparjono, Tri Candra Setiawati


Tobacco variety H382 was a cigar type tobacco that has a high economic value and potential as export trade commodity in Indonesia. The development stage of tobacco was very sensitive to water stress, like the water excess. Silicon was one of the most abundant elements in earth crust and has a role in water stress reduction to the plant. The objective of this study was to determine the response of tobacco crop variety H382 with the application of silicon fertilizer to adapt in waterlogging stress condition. This study used a factorial randomized block design with first factor was silicon fertilizer (0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 ml) and second factor was excess water stress treatments (50% to 70%, 70% to 90%, 90% to 110% and 110% to 130% of field capacity). All treatments were replicated three times. The results showed that the addition of 0.45 ml silicon fertilizer to waterlogged tobacco crop could escalate the adaptive response of plant to cope with stress; seen from the increasing of the opened stomata, aerenchyma formation and the chlorophyll content of tobacco crop under excess water stress compared to control. Silicon supplementation improves the water availability in root surroundings and repairs the root architecture; thus, lead to a better hydraulic conductivity of the root for water and nutrient intake. Furthermore, authors found that the application of silicon fertilizer helped tobacco crop variety H382 improve plant adaptability to deal with excess water stress.


abiotic stress; chlorophyll content; H382; stomatal density; waterlogging

Full Text:



Arif, Y., Singh, P., Bajguz, A., Alam, P., & Hayat, S. (2021). Silicon mediated abiotic stress tolerance in plants using physio-biochemical, omic approach and cross-talk with phytohormones. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 166, 278–289.

Artyszak, A. (2018). Effect of silicon fertilization on crop yield quantity and quality—A literature review in Europe. Plants, 7(3), 54.

Barickman, T. C., Simpson, C. R., & Sams, C. E. (2019). Waterlogging causes early modification in the the physiological performance, carotenoids, chlorophylls, proline, and soluble sugars of cucumber plants. Plants, 8(6), 160.

Biglouei, M. H., Assimi, M. H., & Akbarzadeh, A. (2010). Effect of water stress at different growth stages on quantity and quality traits of Virginia (flue-cured) tobacco type. Plant, Soil and Environment, 56(2), 67–75.

Biswas, J. C., & Kalra, N. (2018). Effect of waterlogging and submergence on crop physiology and growth of different crops and its remedies: Bangladesh perspectives. Saudi Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(6), 315–329. Retrieved from

Cooke, J., & Leishman, M. R. (2016). Consistent alleviation of abiotic stress with silicon addition: A meta-analysis. Functional Ecology, 30(8), 1340–1357.

Coskun, D., Deshmukh, R., Sonah, H., Shivaraj, S. M., Frenette-Cotton, R., Tremblay, L., Isenring, P., & Bélanger, R. R. (2019). Si permeability of a deficient Lsi1 aquaporin in tobacco can be enhanced through a conserved residue substitution. Plant Direct, 3(8), e00163.

Erhenhi, A. H., Lemy, E. E., Vwioko, D. E., & Imene, O. (2019). Growth of tomato (Solanum llycopersicum L.) under waterlogging condition. European Journal of Scientific Research, 152(4), 509–515. Retrieved from

Feldman, A. T., & Wolfe, D. (2014). Tissue processing and hematoxylin and eosin staining. In Day, C. (eds) Histopathology. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1180. New York: Humana Press.

Gago, P., Conejero, G., Martínez, M. C., This, P., & Verdeil, J. L. (2019). Comparative anatomy and morphology of the leaves of grenache Noir and Syrah grapevine cultivars. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 40(2), 1–9.

Hartman, S., van Dongen, N., Renneberg, D. M. H. J., Welschen-Evertman, R. A. M., Kociemba, J., Sasidharan, R., & Voesenek, L. A. C. J. (2020). Ethylene differentially modulates hypoxia responses and tolerance across solanum species. Plants, 9(8), 1022.

Iqbal, Z., Sarkhosh, A., Balal, R. M., Gómez, C., Zubair, M., Ilyas, N., Khan, N., & Shahid, M. A. (2021). Silicon alleviate hypoxia stress by improving enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and regulating nutrient uptake in muscadine grape (Muscadinia rotundifolia Michx.). Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 618873.

Khan, A., Khan, A. L., Muneer, S., Kim, Y. H., Al-Rawahi, A., & Al-Harrasi, A. (2019). Silicon and salinity: Crosstalk in crop-mediated stress tolerance mechanisms. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10, 1429.

Kovács, S., Kutasy, E., & Csajbók, J. (2022). The multiple role of silicon nutrition in alleviating environmental stresses in sustainable crop production. Plants, 11(9), 1223.

Kowalska, J., Tyburski, J., Jakubowska, M., & Krzymińska, J. (2021). Correction to: Effect of different forms of silicon on growth of spring wheat cultivated in organic farming system. Silicon, 13, 219.

Kumar, K. M., Sujatha, K. B., Rajashree, V., & Kalarani, M. K. (2018). Study on gas exchange and antioxidant system of solanaceous species under water logged conditions. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 6, 54–63.

Kurniawan, B. A., Fajriani, S., & Arifian. (2014). Pengaruh jumlah pemberian air terhadap respon pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman tembakau (Nicotiana tabaccum L.). Jurnal Produksi Tanaman, 2(1), 59–64. Retrieved from

Li, Y., He, N., Hou, J., Xu, L., Liu, C., Zhang, J., Wang, Q., Zhang, X., & Wu, X. (2018). Factors influencing leaf chlorophyll content in natural forests at the biome scale. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 64.

Liu, P., Yin, L., Wang, S., Zhang, M., Deng, X., Zhang, S., & Tanaka, K. (2015). Enhanced root hydraulic conductance by aquaporin regulation accounts for silicon alleviated salt-induced osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 111, 42–51.

Marques, D. J., Bianchini, H. C., Maciel, G. M., de Mendonça, T. F. N., & e Silva, M. F. (2022). Morphophysiological changes resulting from the application of silicon in corn plants under water stress. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 41(2), 569–584.

Muktianto, R. T., & Diartho, H. C. (2018). Komoditas tembakau Besuki Na-Oogst dalam perspektif pembangunan berkelanjutan di Kabupaten Jember. Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 33(2), 115–125.

Mundada, P. S., Ahire, M. L., Umdale, S. D., Barmukh, R. B., Nikam, T. D., Pable, A. A., Deshmukh, R. K., & Barvkar, V. T. (2021). Characterization of influx and efflux silicon transporters and understanding their role in the osmotic stress tolerance in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 162, 677–689.

Nurhidayati, T., Chanifah, H., Purnobasuki, H., Hariyanto, S., & Jadid, N. (2017a). Growth responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) varieties to water logging stress. Bioscience Research, 14(3), 574–581. Retrieved from

Nurhidayati, T., Novitasari, Purnobasuki, H., Hariyanto, S., & Jadid, N. (2017b). Profile of protein levels some tobacco varieties (Nicotiana tabacum L.) on waterlogging stress. Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Technology, 8(1), 180–186. Retrieved from

Nurhidayati, T., Wardhani, S. P., Purnobasuki, H., Hariyanto, S., Jadid, N., & Nurcahyani, D. D. (2017c). Response morphology and anatomy of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plant on waterlogging. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1908, 040009.

Pan, J., Sharif, R., Xu, X., & Chen, X. (2021). Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in plants: Research progress and prospects. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 627331.

Pan, T., Zhang, J., He, L., Hafeez, A., Ning, C., & Cai, K. (2021). Silicon enhances plant resistance of rice against submergence stress. Plants, 10(4), 767.

Peng, S. Z., Gao, X. L., Yang, S. H., Yang, J., & Zhang, H. X. (2015). Water requirement pattern for tobacco and its response to water deficit in Guizhou Province. Water Science and Engineering, 8(2), 96–101.

Purnobasuki, H., Nurhidayati, T., Hariyanto, S., & Jadid, N. (2018). Data of root anatomical responses to periodic waterlogging stress of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) varieties. Data in Brief, 20, 2012–2016.

Rangwala, T., Bafna, A., Vyas, N., & Gupta, R. (2019). Beneficial role of soluble silica in enhancing chlorophyll content in onion leaves. Current Agriculture Research Journal, 7(3), 358–367.

Ranjan, A., Sinha, R., Bala, M., Pareek, A., Singla-Pareek, S. L., & Singh, A. K. (2021). Silicon-mediated abiotic and biotic stress mitigation in plants: Underlying mechanisms and potential for stress resilient agriculture. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 163, 15–25.

Schaller, J., Cramer, A., Carminati, A., & Zarebanadkouki, M. (2020). Biogenic amorphous silica as main driver for plant available water in soils. Scientific Reports, 10, 2424.

Semenova, N. A., Smirnov, A. A., Grishin, A. A., Pishchalnikov, R. Y., Chesalin, D. D., Gudkov, S. V., Chilingaryan, N. O., Skorokhodova, A. N., Dorokhov, A. S., & Izmailov, A. Y. (2021). The effect of plant growth compensation by adding silicon-containing fertilizer under light stress conditions. Plants, 10(7), 1287.

Setyoningrum, F. I., Supriyadi, & Harlianingtyas, I. (2021). Pengaruh curah hujan dan hari hujan terhadap produksi tembakau Na-Oogst di Kabupaten Jember. Agropross: National Conference Proceedings of Agriculture, 5, 25–33.

Shi, Y., Zhang, Y., Han, W., Feng, R., Hu, Y., Guo, J., & Gong, H. (2016). Silicon enhances water stress tolerance by improving root hydraulic conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 196.

Siregar, A. F., Sipahutar, I. A., Husnain, & Masunaga, T. (2020). Beneficial effect of silicon application and intermittent irrigation on improving rice productivity in Indonesia. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), 48(1), 15–21.

Wang, X., Deng, Z., Zhang, W., Meng, Z., Chang, X., & Lv, M. (2017). Effect of waterlogging duration at different growth stages on the growth, yield and quality of cotton. PLoS ONE, 12(1), e0169029.

Wardhono, A., Arifandi, J. A., & Indrawati, Y. (2019). The quality development of Besuki Na-Oogst tobacco in Jember Regency. Jejak, 12(1), 190–203.

Wardhono, A., Arifandi, J. A., Indrawati, Y., Nasir, M. A., & Qori’ah, C. G. (2021). Improving tobacco Besuki Na-Oogst competitiveness: Does tobacco still at a crossroads? Journal of Management and Business Environment (JMBE), 2(2), 141–161.

Zambrano Nájera, J. del C., & Ortega, O. (2021). Effect of climate change on burley tobacco crop calendars. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, 74(1), 9441–9451.

Zargar, S. M., Mahajan, R., Bhat, J. A., Nazir, M., & Deshmukh, R. (2019). Role of silicon in plant stress tolerance: Opportunities to achieve a sustainable cropping system. 3 Biotech, 9, 73.


  • There are currently no refbacks.