Effects of Harvesting Period on Phytochemicals of Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum, WK 1204 Variety)

Babita Adhikari, Sanil Joshi, Bunty Maskey


Wheatgrass is a plethora of essential phytochemicals considered to exhibit numerous benefits on human health. Therefore, the study of phytochemicals with varying stages of growth is essential. This study aims to determine the optimum harvesting period of wheatgrass based on its phytochemical content. During the growth of wheat seed (WK 1204 variety), the phytochemicals such as chlorophyll, total phenol content, flavonoids and tannins were extracted by 80% acetone and 80% methanol from wheatgrass harvested on days 6, 7, 8, 9 12 and 15, respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, chlorophyll and flavonoid contents significantly (p<0.05) increased and reached the maximum level on day 9. Total phenol content was found to be increasing significantly (p<0.05), while the tannin content was decreasing considerably (p<0.05) on day 15. The optimum harvesting period was found on day 9. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, chlorophyll and flavonoid content significantly (p<0.05) increased and reached the maximum level, i.e., 92.27±1.92%, 6.63±0.053 mg g-1 and 183.64±33.49 mg QE g-1, respectively, on day 9 of cultivation. The total phenol content was found to be increasing significantly (p<0.05) from 291.67±5.69 mg GAE g-1 on day 6 to 446.67±5.77 mg GAE g-1 on day 15, while the tannin content was declining significantly (p<0.05) from 11.74±0.29 mg GAE g-1 on days 6, 7 and so on to 3.36±0.47 mg GAE g-1 on day 15. Therefore, the optimum harvesting period of wheatgrass was found to be day 9 in terms of phytochemical analysis.


cereal grass; DPPH scavenging activity; harvesting period; phytochemicals

Full Text:



Adhikari, P., Araya, H., Aruna, G., Balamatti, A., Banerjee, S., Baskaran, P., Barah, B. C., Behera, D., Berhe, T., Boruah, P., Dhar, S., Edwards, S., Fulford, M., Gujja, B., Ibrahim, H., Kabir, H., Kassam, A., Khadka, Ram B., Koma, Y. S., Natarajan, U. S., Perez, R., Sen, D., Sharif, A., Singh, G., Styger, E., Thakur, A. K., Tiwari, A., Uphoff, N., & Verma, A. (2018). System of crop intensification for more productive, resource-conserving, climate-resilient, and sustainable agriculture: experience with diverse crops in varying agroecologies. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 16(1), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/14735903.2017.1402504

Agrawal, A., Gupta, E., & Chaturvedi, R. (2015). Determination of minerals and antioxidant activities at different levels of jointing stage in juice of wheat grass -The green wonder. International Journal of Pure and Applied Biosciences, 3(2), 311–316. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297403454_Determination_of_Minerals_and_Antioxidant_Activities_at_Different_Levels_of_Jointing_Stage_in_Juice_of_Wheat_Grass_-The_Green_Wonder

Ahmad, W., Khan, I., Khan, M. A., Ahmad, M., Subhan, F., & Karim, N. (2014). Evaluation of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Artemisia indica Linn (aerial parts) in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 151(1), 618–623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.012

Anwar, D. A., El-Yazied, A. A., Mohammadi, T. F., & Abdallah, M. M. F. (2015). Wheatgrass juice and its nutritional value as affected by sprouting condition. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(1), 37–49. https://doi.org/10.21608/ajs.2015.14558

Ashok, S. A. (2011). Phytochemical and pharmacological screening of wheatgrass juice (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 9(1), 159–164. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cites=12699356977005633661&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=id&authuser=3

Aydos, O., Avci, A., Ozkan, T., Karadag, A., Gurleyik, E., Altinok, B., & Sunguroğlu, A. (2011). Antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.) extract on CML (K562) cell line. Turkish Journal of. Medical Science, 41(4), 657–663. http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-0912-425

Ayet, G., Burbano, C., Cuadrado, C., Pedrosa, M. M., Robredo, L. M., Muzquiz, M., de la Cuadra, C., Castano, A., & Osagie, A. (1997). Effect of germination, under different environmental conditions, on saponins, phytic acid and tannins in lentils (Lens culinaris). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 74(2), 273–279. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199706)74:2<273::AID-JSFA800>3.0.CO;2-L

Barek, M. L., Hasmadi, M., Zaleha, A. Z., & Mohd Fadzelly, A. B. (2015). Effect of different drying methods on phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of unfermented and fermented teas from sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus nutans Lind.) leaves. International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 661–670. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%202015/(30).pdf

Chalorcharoenying, W., Lomthaisong, K., Suriharn, B., & Lertrat, K. (2017). Germination process increases phytochemicals in corn. International Food Research Journal, 24(2), 552–558. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/24%20(02)%202017/(12).pdf

Das, A. K., Islam, M. N., Faruk, M. O., Ashaduzzaman, M., & Dungani, R. (2020). Review on tannins: Extraction processes, applications and possibilities. South African Journal of Botany, 135, 58–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2020.08.008

Durairaj, V., Hoda, M., Shakya, G., Pajaniradje, S., Babu, S. P. P., & Rajagopalan, R. (2014). Phytochemical screening and analysis of antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of wheatgrass. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 7(1), S398–S404. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60265-0

Garcia, E. J., Oldoni, T. L. C., de Alencar, S. M., Reis, A., Loguercio, A. D., & Grande, R. H. M. (2012). Antioxidant activity by DPPH assay of potential solutions to be applied on bleached teeth. Brazilian Dental Journal, 23(1), 22–27 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402012000100004

Ghimire, B. K., Seo, J. W., Kim, S. H., Balkrishna Ghimire, B., Lee, J. G., Yu, C. Y., & Chung, I. M. (2021). Influence of harvesting time on phenolic and mineral profiles and their association with the antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of Atractylodes japonica Koidz. Agronomy, 11(7), 1327. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071327

Gore, R. D., Palaskar, S. J., & Bartake, A. R. (2017). Wheatgrass: Green blood can help to fight cancer. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 11(6), 40–42. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/26316.10057

Inanc, A. L. (2011). Chlorophyll: structural properties, health benefits and its occurrence in virgin olive oils. Academic Food Journal, 9(2), 26–27. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cites=8304516157546489797&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=id&authuser=3

Jaradat, N., Hussen, F., & Ali, A. A. (2015). Preliminary phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of total flavonoids, total phenols and antioxidant activity of Ephedra alata Decne. Journal Materials and Environmental Science, 6(6), 1771–1778. Retrieved from https://www.jmaterenvironsci.com/Document/vol6/vol6_N6/208-JMES-1662-2015-Jaradat.pdf

Joshi, B. K., Bhatta, M. R., Ghimire, K. H., Khanal, M., Gurung, S. B., Dhakal, R., & Sthapit, B. (2017). Released and promising crop varieties for mountain agriculture in Nepal (1959–2016). Pokhara, Nepal: Bioversity International. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cites=4801364884324996634&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=id&authuser=3

Kassegn, H. H., Atsbha, T. W., & Weldeabezgi, L. T. (2018). Effect of germination process on nutrients and phytochemicals contents of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) for weaning food preparation. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 4(1), 1545738. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2018.1545738

Kaur, N., Singh, B., Kaur, A., Yadav, M. P., Singh, N., Ahlawat, A. K., & Singh, A. M. (2021). Effect of growing conditions on proximate, mineral, amino acid, phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of wheatgrass from different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Food Chemistry, 341(1), 128201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128201

Kaushal, V. S. (2017). Time dependent antioxidant activity in wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum). European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 4(9), 347–349. Retrieved from https://www.ejpmr.com/home/abstract_id/2889

Khandelwal, S., Udipi, S. A., & Ghugre, P. (2010). Polyphenols and tannins in indian pulses: Effect of soaking, germination and pressure cooking. Food Research International, 43(2), 526–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.09.036

Kim, M. J., Kwak, H. S., & Kim, S. S. (2018). Effects of germination on protein, γ-aminobutyric acid, phenolic acids, and antioxidant capacity in wheat. Molecules, 23(9), 2244. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092244

Kohler, G. O. (1944). The effect of stage of growth on the chemistry of grasses. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 152, 215–223. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cites=2826811035245179023&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=id&authuser=3

Kulkarni, S. D., Tilak, J. C., Acharya, R., Rajurkar, N. S., Devasagayam, T. P. A., & Reddy, A. V. R. (2006). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.) as a function of growth under different conditions. Phytotherapy Research, 20(3), 218–227. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1838

Kumar, N. S., Murali, M., Nair, A. M., & Nair, A. S. (2016). Green blood therapy of wheatgrass-Nature's finest medicine-A literature review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 11(2), 57–64. Retrieved from https://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jpbs/papers/Vol11-issue2/Version-4/I1102045764.pdf

Li, S., Chen, G., Zhang, C., Wu, M., Wu, S., & Liu, Q. (2014). Research progress of natural antioxidants in foods for the treatment of diseases. Food Science and Human Wellness, 3(3–4), 110–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2014.11.002

Megat-Rusydi, M. R., & Azrina, A. (2012). Effect of germination on total phenolic, tannin and phytic acid contents in soy bean and peanut. International Food Research Journal, 19(2), 673–677. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/19%20(02)%202012/(45)IFRJ-2012%20Azrina.pdf

Mujoriya, R., & Bodla, R. B. (2011). A study on wheat grass and its Nutritional value. Food Science and Quality Management, 2, 1–8. Retrieved from https://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/FSQM/article/view/1053

Murali, M., Archa, R. M., Akhil, S. A., Liji, R. S., Kumar, S. S., Nair, A. M., & Kumar, N. S. (2016). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of wheat grass leaf extracts. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 40(1), 307–312. Retrieved from https://globalresearchonline.net/journalcontents/v40-1/56.pdf

Mogra, R., & Rathi, P. (2013). Health benefits of wheatgrass–A wonder food. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 2(4), 10–13. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cluster=16689824664461555449&hl=id&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&authuser=3

Mythili, K., Reddy, C. U., Chamundeeswari, D., & Manna, P. K. (2014). Determination of total phenol, alkaloid, flavonoid and tannin in different extracts of Calanthe triplicata. Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2(2), 246–251. Retrieved from https://www.rroij.com/open-access/determination-of-total-phenol-alkaloid-flavonoid-and-tannin-in-different-extracts-of-calanthe-triplicata-.php?aid=34246

Niroula, A., Khatri, S., Khadka, D., & Timilsina, R. (2019). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity profile of selected cereal sprouts and grasses. International Journal of Food Properties, 22(1), 427–437. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2019.1588297

Özköse, A., Arslan, D., & Acar, A. (2016). The comparison of the chemical composition, sensory, phenolic and antioxidant properties of juices from different wheatgrass and turfgrass species. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 44(2), 499–507. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha44210405

Padalia, S., Drabu, S., Raheja, I., Gupta, A., & Dhamija, M. (2010). Multitude potential of wheatgrass juice (green blood): An overview. Chronicles of Young Scientists, 1(2), 23–28. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cites=14548924153892310554&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=id&authuser=3

Pal, R. S., Bhartiya, A., Kumar, R. A., Kant, L., Aditya, J. P., & Bisht, J. K. (2016). Impact of dehulling and germination on nutrients, antinutrients, and antioxidant properties in horsegram. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(1), 337–347. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2037-3

Panche, A. N., Diwan, A. D., & Chandra, S. R. (2016). Flavonoids: an overview. Journal of Nutritional Science, 5, E47. https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2016.41

Ranganna, S. (1986). Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetables products (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publications. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cites=9716062623848821324&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=id&authuser=3

Rasouli, H., Farzaei, M. H., & Khodarahmi, R. (2017). Polyphenols and their benefits: A review. International Journal of Food Properties, 20(2), 1700–1741. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1354017

Saini, A., Sinha, S., & Singh, J. (2017). Comparison of polyphenols, flavanoids, antioxidant and free radical scavenging content of freeze dried wheatgrass extract from three different wheat species. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 8(1), 98–106. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314035273_COMPARISON_OF_POLYPHENOLS_FLAVANOIDS_ANTIOXIDANT_AND_FREE_RADICAL_SCAVENGING_CONTENT_OF_FREEZE_DRIED_WHEATGRASS_EXTRACT_FROM_THREE_DIFFERENT_WHEAT_SPECIES

Skoczylas, Ł., Korus, A., Tabaszewska, M., Gedos, K., & Szczepanska, E. (2017). Evaluation of the quality of fresh and frozen wheatgrass juices depending on the time of grass harvest. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42(1), e13401. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13401

Suryavanthana, M., Roopavathi, I., & Vijayan, V. (2016). Phytochemical characterization of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 5(1), 283–286. Retrieved from https://www.phytojournal.com/archives/2016/vol5issue1/PartD/5-1-16.pdf

Vignoli, J. A., Bassoli, D. G., & Benassi, M. T. (2011). Antioxidant activity, polyphenols, caffeine and melanoidins in soluble coffee: The influence of processing conditions and raw material. Food Chemistry, 124(3), 863–868. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.07.008

Waterhouse, A. L. (2002). Determination of total phenolics. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, 4(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1002/0471142913.fai0101s06

Wigmore, A. (1985). The wheatgrass book (1st ed.). New York, United States: Avery Publishing Group. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cites=16281490874840227765&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=id&authuser=3


  • There are currently no refbacks.