First Morphological Detection of Non-Quarantine Pest Causing Banana Wilt in Morotai Island

Arief Widyantoro, Artini Artini


There are two symptoms of wilting in banana plants that have been widely known, namely fusarium wilt and bacterial wilt. The symptoms of banana wilt usually are attributed to pathogenic fungi. Wilting symptoms on the leaves are usually accompanied by leaf spot, leaf streak, leaf speckle and anthracnose. Recent quarantine pest reports have found the symptoms of banana wilt in Morotai Island, Indonesia. The pathogens attack many local cultivars of banana plants including Mas, Ambon, Kepok and Nangka. The study aimed to establish the morphological characters of the pathogens that cause banana wilt. Descriptive research began with the sampling of diseased symptomatic leaves, field data reports and identification of pathogenic morphological characters in the laboratory. The variable observed were the disease symptoms, color and shape of mycelia, conidia, kinds of the pathogens and their growth on agar medium. The results showed that there was no quarantine pest on the symptomatic banana samples. There were two non-quarantine pests that had been identified, i.e Fusarium oxysporum causing fusarium wilt and Cladosporium musae causing leaf speckle.


fusarium wilt; leaf speckle; leaf spot; quarantine pest

Full Text:



Abd-Elsalam, K. A., Roshdy, S., Amin, O. E., & Rabani, M. (2010). First morphogenetic identification of the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum musae (Phyllachoraceae) from imported bananas in Saudi Arabia. Genetics and Molecular Research : GMR, 9(4), 2335–2342. Crossref

Aihara, M., Tanaka, T., & Takatori, K. (2001). Cladosporium as the main fungal contaminant of locations in dwelling environments. Biocontrol Science, 6(1), 49–52. Crossref

Aihara, M., Tanaka, T., Ohta, T., & Takatori, K. (2002). Effect of temperature and water activity on the growth of Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. Biocontrol Science, 7(3), 193–196. Crossref

Al-Jaradi, A., Al-Mahmooli, I., Janke, R., Maharachchikumbura, S., Al-Saady, N., & Al-Sadi, A. M. (2018). Isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi and oomycetes associated with beans and cowpea root diseases in Oman. PeerJ, 6, e6064. Retrieved from Link

Amani, M., & Avagyan, G. (2014). Isolation and Identification of Fungal Pathogens on Banana Trees (Musa acuminata L.) in Iran. International Journal of AgriScience, 4(8), 409–413. Retrieved from Link

Bensch, K., Braun, U., Groenewald, J. Z., & Crous, P. W. (2012). The genus Cladosporium. Studies in Mycology, 72, 1–401. Crossref

Booth, C. (1971). The Genus Fusarium. Kew, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

BPS-Statistics of Maluku Utara Province. (2017). Statistics of Horticultural Agriculture (Vegetables and Fruits) of Maluku Utara Province 2017. Ternate: BPS Provinsi Maluku Utara. Retrieved from Link

BPS-Statistics of Maluku Utara Province. (2018). Statistics of Horticultural Agriculture (Vegetables and Fruits) of Maluku Utara Province 2018. Ternate: BPS Provinsi Maluku Utara. Retrieved from Link

Buddenhagen, I. W. (2009). Understanding strain diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense and history of introduction of “Tropical Race 4” to better manage banana production. Acta Horticulture, 828, 193–204. Retrieved from Link

Crous, P. W., Schroers, H. J., Groenewald, J. Z., Braun, U., & Schubert, K. (2005). Metulocladosporiella gen. nov. for the causal organism of Cladosporium speckle disease of banana. Mycological Research, 110(3), 264–275. Crossref

Davis, R. I., Moore, N. Y., & Fegan, M. (2000). Blood disease and Panama disease: two newly introduced and grave threats to banana production in the island of New Guinea. Proceedings of the Papua New Guinea Food and Nutrition 2000 Conference PNG University of Technology, Lae, 26–30 June 2000’. ACIAR Proceedings No. 99. (Eds RM Bourke, MG Allen, JG Salisbury) pp. 816–821. (ACIAR: Canberra). Retrieved from Link

DISTAN, [Dinas Pertanian]. (2018). Banana Commodity of Maluku Utara. Ternate: Regional Agricultural Office of Maluku Utara Province Pub.

Edison, H. S., Sutanto, A., Hermanto, C., Uji, T., & Razak, N. (1997). The Exploration of Musaceae in Maluku Islands, 18 November - 14 december 1996. Montpellier, France: Research Institute for Fruit-INIBAB. Retrieved from Link

EPPO, [European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization]. (2011). Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Retrieved from Link

FAO. (2016). ISPM 16: Regulated Non-quarantine Pests; Concept and Application. International Standards For Phytosanitary Measures. Rome: International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). Retrieved from Link

Ferraez, L. C., Arango, R. G., Flores, N. E. R., & Kay, A. C. J. (2008). A simple method to obtain single conidium isolates directly from banana (Musa sp.) leaves infected with Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet. Rev Mexica de Fitopatologi, 26(1), 76–78. Retrieved from Link

Hadiwiyono. (2011). Blood bacterial wilt disease of banana: the distribution of pathogen in infected plant, symptoms, and potentiality of diseased tissues as source of infective inoculums. Nusantara Bioscience, 3(3), 112–117. Retrieved from Link

Hadiwiyono, H., Widyantoro, A., & Widono, S. (2013). Antagonisme Bacillus terhadap Infeksi Layu Fusarium pada Bibit Pisang Hasil Kultur Jaringan. Agrosains: Jurnal Penelitian Agronomi, 15(1), 21–26. Crossref

Hendaru, I. H., Hidayat, Y., & Ramdhani, M. (2017). Karakter Morfologi Tujuh Aksesi Pisang dari Maluku Utara. Buletin Plasma Nutfah, 23(1), 13–22. Crossref

IAQA, [Indonesian Agricultural Quarantine Agency]. (2018). Quarantine Pests List Report. Jakarta: IAQA.

Jayatri, H. N., Sumardiyono, C., & Wibowo, A. (2018). Race and Virulence Determination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Isolates from Sidomulyo Village of Bantul, Yogyakarta. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia, 22(1), 72–81. Crossref

Jones, D. R. (2000). Diseases of Banana, Abaca and Enset. Wallingford, UK : CAB International. Retrieved from Link

Kiffer, E., & Morelet, M. (1999). The Deuteromycetes. Mitosporic Fungi: Classification and Generic Keys. Enfield, New Hampshire, USA: Science Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from Link

Leslie, J. F., & Summerell, B. A. (2006). The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Asia. Retrieved from Link

Martinelli, F., Scalenghe, R., Davino, S., Panno, S., Scuderi, G., Ruisi, P., Villa, P., Stroppiana, D., Boschetti, M., Goulart, L. R., Davis, C. E., Dandekar, A. M. (2014). Advanced methods of plant disease detection. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35, 1–25. Crossref

Nasir, Jumjunidang, & Riska. (2005). Detection and mapping of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense on the potential area for banana agribusiness development in Indonesia. Jurnal Hortikultura, 15(1), 50–57. Retrieved from Link

Nasir, N., Pittaway, P. A., Pegg, K. G., & Lisle, A. T. (2003). A foliar rating system for comparing the resistance of banana cultivars grown as tissue-cultured plantlets in the laboratory to Fusarium wilt. Australasian Plant Pathology, 32(4), 521–526. Crossref

Ploetz, R. C. (1988). Vegetative Compatibility Among Races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Plant Disease, 72, 325–328. Crossref

Riska, Jumjunidang, & Hermanto, C. (2012). Confirm status of VCG Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in West Sumatera, Indonesia. ARPN Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science, 7(4), 244–249. Retrieved from Link

Robles-Yerena, L., Ayala-Escobar, V., Leyva-Mir, S. G., Lima, N. B., Camacho-Tapia, M., & Tovar-Pedraza, J. M. (2019). First report of Cladosporium cladosporioides causing leaf spot on tomato in Mexico. Plant Pathology, 101, 759. Crossref

Sahlan. (2003). Effects of temperature and relative humidity on conidial germination and germ tubes development of Cladosporium musae Mason. Jurnal Hortikultura, 13(3), 197–204. Retrieved from Link

Samson, R. A., Hoekstra, E. S., & Frisvad, J. C. (2004). Introduction to Food and Airborne Fungi. Utrecth, Netherlands : Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS). Retrieved from Link

Satyanarayana, T., Deshmukh, S. K., & Johri, B. N. (2017). Development in Fungal Biology and Applied Mycology. Singapore: Springerm Verlag. Retrieved from Link

Seifert, K. A., & Gams, W. (2011). The genera of Hyphomycetes - 2011 update. Persoonia, 27, 119–129. Crossref

Semangun, H. (2007). Horticultural Diseases in Indonesia. 2nd Edition. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Sitepu, F. E., Lisnawita, Pinem, M. I. (2012). Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (E.F.Smith) Synd. & Hans.) on banana (Musa spp.) and its related with Radopholus similis in the field. Jurnal Online Agroekoteknologi, 2(3), 1204–1211. Retrieved from Link

Soesanto, L., Mugiastuti, E., & Ahmad, F. (2013). Diagnosis Lima Penyakit Utama Karena Jamur Pada 100 Kultivar Bibit Pisang. Jurnal Hama Dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika, 12(1), 36–45. Retrieved from Link

Stover, R. H. (1972). Banana, Plantain and Abaca Diseases. London, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Surridge, A. K. J., Wehner, F. C., Crous, P. W., & Viljoen, A. (2003). First report of Cladosporium musae on banana in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology, 32(4), 499–503. Crossref

Tushemereirwe, W. K., Gold, W. K., Speijer, P. R., & Holderness, M. (2011). Foliar Diseases of Banana in Uganda: Results from a Diagnostic Survey. African Crop Science Journal, 1(2), 145–149. Crossref

Wibowo, A., Subandiyah, S., Sumardiyono, C., Sulistyowati, L., Taylor, P., & Fegan, M. (2011). Occurrence of tropical race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Indonesia. Plant Pathology Journal, 27(3), 280–284. Crossref

Widyantoro, A., Hadiwiyono, & Subagiya. (2020). Short communication: Biological control of fusarium wilt on banana plants using biofertilizers. Biodiversitas, 21(5), 2119–2123. Crossref

Yonow, T., Ramirez-Villegas, J., Abadie, C., Darnell, R. E., Ota, N., & Kriticos, D. J. (2019). Black Sigatoka in bananas: Ecoclimatic suitability and disease pressure assessments. PLoS ONE, 14(8), e0220601. Crossref


  • There are currently no refbacks.