Instructions for Authors

Livestock and Animal Research (Livest. Anim. Res.) publishes original research article and review papers in the field of livestock and other animal research. It has been accredited and categorized as Sinta 2 by Directorate General of Strengthening Research and Development – Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia in 2019 (No. 10/E/KPT/2019). This journal is published three times a year: March, July, and November by Sebelas Maret University associated with Ikatan Sarjana Peternakan Indonesia (ISPI).

Focus and Scope

The interest of Livestock and Animal Research covering: 1) Animal Production System; 2) Animal Breeding and Genetics; 3) Animal Physiology and Reproduction; 4) Animal Nutrition and Feeding Technology; 5) Technology of Animal Product; 6) Animal Biotechnology; 7) Animal Behaviour and Welfare; 9) Socio-Economics in the field of Animal Research, and 10) Animal health. The objects of the research can be livestock, laboratory, exotic, and/or wild animals. This journal uses blind review where all the review processes using anonymous system so that both reviewer and author identities are not revealed during the process.

Submission and Peer Review Process

All manuscripts should be submitted via the Livestock and Animal Research e-submission system (https://jurnal.uns.ac.id/lar/about/submissions#onlineSubmissions). If there are difficulties, authors should contact the editorial office (https://jurnal.uns.ac.id/lar/about/contact).

This journal uses blind review, which means that the reviewer and author identities are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa, throughout the review process. To facilitate this, authors need to ensure that their manuscripts are prepared in a way that does not give away their identity.  To help with this preparation please ensure the following when submitting to Livestock and Animal Research.

Manuscript Preparation (Style and Form)

General

All manuscripts submitted to the Journal must be double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font with 2.5 cm margin all around.  Consecutive line and page numbers are required. Greek letters and special symbol are inserted using the symbol palette.  Math equations are created with Microsoft equation, MathType or LaTex. Journal template could be downloaded here.

1. Original Research Article

Title Page

Required items on the page are:

  1. A title with the first word and proper nouns capitalized.  Species of subject is encouraged. The title should be unique.
  2. Full names (given name, middle initial, family name) of all authors
  3. Institutions of the authors with location denoted with a number (1, 2, and so on) behind the author last name
  4. Department, city, state or country and postal code
  5. Symbol (*) should be added behind the author's last name who responsible as corresponding author.

Abstract

A structured abstract is required for original articles and an unstructured one for review papers. The abstract, consisting of no more than 300 words, appears on a separate page following the title page. The abstract should summarize pertinent results in a brief but understandable form. A structured abstract should contain Objective (purpose/background), Methods, Results, and Conclusion sections. An unstructured abstract should be one paragraph without sections. References should never be cited in the abstract. 

Keywords

At the end of the abstract, up to six keywords that best describe the nature of the research should be listed. The term "Keywords" should appear in bold followed by a colon. The first letter of each keyword is capitalized and keywords are separated by semicolon. Keywords should include the animal species, variables tested, and the major response criteria.

Headings

The article’s major headings (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, and References) appear in roman bold-faced type. Subheadings appear at the left margin on a separate line in bold-faced print, are not followed by punctuation, and only the first word is capitalized. Subheadings are used when subsections consist of several paragraphs.

INTRODUCTION

The introduction should briefly place the study in a broad context and highlight why it is important. It should define the purpose of the work and its significance. The current state of the research field should be reviewed carefully and key publications cited. Please highlight controversial and diverging hypotheses when necessary. Finally, briefly mention the main aim of the work and highlight the principal conclusions. As far as possible, please keep the introduction comprehensible to scientists outside your particular field of research. References should be numbered in order of appearance and indicated by a numeral or numerals in square brackets, e.g., [1] or [2,3], or [4–6]. See the end of the document for further details on references. When quoting from other sources, give a reference number in brackets after the author’s name or at the end of the quotation. Examples are as follows: Cahyadi [1], Bernstein and Horbar [2], Wati et al [3].

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials and methods section may be divided by subheadings. It should be described with sufficient details to allow others to replicate and build on published results. Please note that publication of your manuscript implicates that you must make all materials, data, computer code, and protocols associated with the publication available to readers. Please disclose at the submission stage any restrictions on the availability of materials or information. Interventionary studies involving animals or humans, and other studies require ethical approval must list the authority that provided approval and the corresponding ethical approval code.

New methods and protocols should be described in detail while well-established methods can be briefly described and appropriately cited. A clear description or original reference is required for all biological, analytical, and statistical procedures used in the experiment. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Diets, animals (breed, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions [i.e., with or without restriction of feed and/or water]), surgical techniques, measurements, and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Brand names and company names and locations for all substances and equipment referred to in the text should be included in parentheses within the text, not in footnotes.

Research manuscripts reporting large datasets that are deposited in a publicly available database should specify where the data have been deposited and provide the relevant accession numbers. If the accession numbers have not yet been obtained at the time of submission, please state that they will be provided during review. They must be provided prior to publication.

Statistics: Biology should be emphasized, but the use of incorrect or inadequate statistical methods to analyze and interpret biological data is not acceptable. Consultation with a statistician is recommended. Statistical methods commonly used in the area of animal sciences do not need to be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions.

RESULTS

This section may be divided by subheadings. Results should be presented in tabular form when feasible. The text should explain or elaborate on the tabular data, but numbers should not be repeated extensively within the text. Sufficient data, all with some index of variation attached, should be presented to allow the readers to interpret the results of the experiment.

DISCUSSION

This section may be divided by subheadings. The discussion should interpret the results clearly and concisely in terms of biological mechanisms and should integrate with the research findings of other studies to provide the readers with a broad base for understanding whether the hypotheses tested were accepted or rejected. In this section, repetition of the result section is not allowed in the discussion section.

CONCLUSION

Conclusion section emphasizes a pertinent overview of the study without any more discussion it can be an answer to the study objective. It should be briefly and clearly written.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

Declare conflicts of interest or state “The authors declare no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript”. Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interest that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. Any role of the funders in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results must be declared in this section. If there is no role, please state “The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results”.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

In this section, you can acknowledge any support given which is not covered by the author contribution or funding sections. This may include administrative and technical support, or donations in kind (e.g., materials used for experiments). Persons who contributed to the papers, but not enough to be coauthors, may also be acknowledged.

REFERENCES

This journal follows Journal of Animal Science reference style (https://academic.oup.com/jas). References should be 20 to 30 references for research papers, with minimum 80% of journals published within the last 15 years. All authors of a cited work should be listed. We recommend preparing the references with a bibliography software package, such as EndNote, Reference Manager or Zotero to avoid typing mistakes and duplicated references. Include the digital object identifier (DOI) for all references where available. Non-published findings and personal communications should not be included in the list of references. Journals titles shall be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations used by PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals). Sample references are given below. Other types of references not described below should follow The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine).

Sample References

(Journal Articles)

  1. Cahyadi, M., C. Jo, and J. H. Lee. 2014. Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes for the economic traits in meat-type chicken. Worlds Poult. Sci. 70:329-342. Doi: 10.1017/S0043933914000348.
  2. Perez, V. G., A. M. Waguespark, T. D. Bidner, L. L. Southern, T. M. Fakler, T. L. Ward, M. Steidinger, and J. E. Pettigrew. 2011. Additivity of effects from dietary copper and zinc on growth performance and fecal microbiotia of pigs after weaning. J. Anim. Sci. 89:414–425. Doi:10.2527/jas.2010-2839.
  3. Wijayanti, D. and F. Ardigurnita. 2020. Kualitas tampilan vulva dan tanda-tanda berahi pada kambing Peranakan Etawah yang diberi ekstrak buah parijoto (Medinilla speciosa). Si. Pet. 18:31-37. Doi: 10.20961/sainspet.v18i1.34258
  4. Centon, J. R., G. E. Erickson, T. J. Klopfenstein, K. J. Vander Pol, and M. A. Greenquist. 2007. Effects of roughage source and level in finishing diets containing wet distillers grains on feedlot performance. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 2):76. (Abstr.) doi:10.2527/jas.2006-354.

(Books and Book Chapters)

  1. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., Arlington, VA. 
  2. NRC. 2000. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
  3. Robinson, P. H., E. K. Okine, and J. J. Kennelly. 1992. Measurement of protein digestion in ruminants. In: S. Nissen, editor, Modern methods in protein nutrition and metabolism. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. p. 121-127.

(Web sites)

  1. Raosoft. Sample size calculator [Internet]. Raosoft Inc.; c2004 [cited 2020 Apr 1]. Available from: http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html

(Conference Papers)

  1. Bailey, E. A., J. R. Jaeger, J. W. Waggoner, G. W. Preedy, L. A. Pacheco, and K. C. Olson. 2012. Effect of weaning method on welfare and performance of beef calves during receiving. Proc. West. Sec. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci. 63:25-29.

Tables

Tables are used to present numerical data in a self-explanatory manner. They should be intelligible without consulting the text and should not duplicate data already given in the text or in illustrations. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table. Tables should be double-spaced with each table on a separate sheet. Tables should appear immediately after the references. The tables should be paginated in series with the text.
All tables should be cited in the text. Arabic numerals are used to number tables. The table number (i.e., Table 4.) is typed in bold face followed by a period. The title of the table continues on the same line with only the first letter capitalized. A period should not appear at the end of the title. Column headings should have the first letter of each word capitalized while the names of variables are to be typed with only the first letter capitalized (i.e., Average daily gain).
For numerals less than 1, a zero should be inserted to the left of the decimal point, and if possible, columns should be center- aligned. If there are no data for a particular entry, a hyphen should be inserted. If an explanation is necessary, an abbreviation can be used in the body of the table (e.g., ND) and it should be explained clearly in the footnotes.
References to footnotes in a table are to be specified by superscript numbers, independently for each table. Superscript letters are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lower case p to indicate probability values (i.e., p < 0.05).
Presentation of pooled standard errors, the general basis for statistical comparisons of means, is recommended when variance is homogeneous. These should be presented in a separate column or row. Standard errors can be attached to each mean by ± signs when variance or SE is heterogeneous (e.g., unbalanced experiments or unequal numbers of observations in treatment means). The pooled standard error is the preferred estimate of experimental error because presenting individual standard errors tends to clutter up the table.
For diet composition, major ingredient inclusion levels should be presented as a percentage of the total rather than in grams or kilograms of food.

Figures

Figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript with each figure on a separate page. Figure legends should be typed (double spaced) on a separate page. Figures should fit in one column (8 cm wide), or full-page width (17 cm wide). A minimum type size of 8 points (Times New Roman) is recommended so as to be readable in the final publication size.
For tables containing multiple lines, solid, long-dash, short-dash, and dotted lines should be used, while gray or shaded lines should be avoided. Lines with different symbols for the data points may also be used to distinguish curves. Unnecessary backgrounds and grid lines should be removed from graphs. Each axis should have a description and a unit.
For bar charts, different fill patterns may be used if needed (black, white, gray, and stripes). Curves and data points should be identified using the following symbols (●, ○, ■, □, ♦, ◊, ▲, △, +, and ×). Symbols should be defined in the figure legend or in a key on the figure.
The preferred file type for figures is JPEG, TIFF, or PPT. If figures are to be reproduced in grayscale (black and white), they should be submitted as such. If figures are to appear in color in the print journal, the files must be submitted in CMYK color (not RGB). The minimum resolution is 300 dpi for color and grayscale figures, and 600 dpi for line art.
Photomicrographs must have their unmagnified size designated either in the caption or with a scale bar on the figure. A legend should be prepared to provide sufficient information and all abbreviations, and the symbols used in the figure should be defined in the legend.

Formatting of Mathematical Components

Authors are better to use Microsoft equation in preparing math equations. This is an example of an equation:

HU = 100log (h+7.57-1.7W0.37)                                                              (1)

the text following an equation need not be a new paragraph. Please punctuate equations as regular text.

Use of Numbers

The following rules address the formatting of numbers:

  • Numbers one through nine should be spelled out and numerals be used for 10 and above.
  • Arabic numerals should be used with abbreviated units of measure: 2 g, 5 d, $4.00, 3%, and numerical designations in the text: exp 1, group 3, etc.
  • Arabic numerals should be used to express times and dates: 08:00 h, 3 Sept. 1985, etc.
  • In a series using some numbers less than 10 and some more than 10, numerals should be used for all (i.e., 2 Holsteins, 6 Charolais, and 15 Friesians).
  • When writing a large number ending in several zeros that represents an approximation, a word should be used for part of the number (i.e., 1.8 million rather than 1,800,000).
  • When two numbers appear adjacent to each other, the first should be spelled out (i.e., ten 2-d-old chicks rather than 10 2-d-old chicks).
  • A sentence should not begin with a numeral. The number should be spelled out, and when possible, the sentence can be rearranged to eliminate lengthy sentence-initial numbers.
  • The 24-h clock system should be used: 09:30, 13:40, etc. Periods of time should be expressed in quantitative hours (e.g., 2 h 16 min). The terms hour (h), minute (min), second (s), and year (yr) should be abbreviated when used with a number in the text but spelled out when they are used alone.
  • A hyphen should not be used to indicate inclusiveness (e.g., 12 to 14 mg or wk 3 and 4, not 12-14 mg or wk 3-4).

Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at https://jurnal.uns.ac.id/lar/index, Figure S1: title, Table S1: title.

2. Review Paper

All other types of manuscripts should meet the abovementioned requirements. For additional requirements for other types of manuscripts, the following guidelines apply.

Reviews are invited by the editor and should be comprehensive analyses of specific topics. They are to be organized in the same way as an Original Article with an unstructured abstract (300 words maximum). The number of references is limited to 80.