Wibowo Wibowo, Endah Safitri, Delista Putri Deni


The construction industry is an important thing to support the development of a country. In concrete construction, quality, strength, and durability of concrete are the main requirements of all. In urban tropical countries, carbonation is one of the essential factors that affect the durability of concrete, and it may cause corrosion of reinforced steel in concrete. Therefore, high strength self-compacting concrete may be expected as the solution, improved by pozzolanic additions, metakaolin with substitution dosage at 10%; 12,5%; 15%; 17,5%; and 20%. This study purposed to determine the effect of metakaolin and its optimum dosage to improve high strength self-compacting concrete quality on its carbonation rates. This study was done by using experimental methods. It needs a plain cylindrical concrete with 75 mm diameter and 150 mm height, and testing by SNI 03-6468-2000, EFNARC 2002, and SEM-PUPR 25-2015. The carbonation test is done using accelerated laboratory carbonation in Structures and Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret by soaking the specimens in a 4% carbonate solution for 15 days, 37 days, and 51 days, proceeded by splitting using CTM, and spray it using a 1% phenolphthalein indicator to determine its carbonation depth. Based on the results, metakaolin might improve concrete quality by reducing its carbonation rates by 15% substitution dosage of cement content, with a nominal atmospheric carbonation coefficient 3,71 mm/year½, reduced 44,41% from HSSCC without metakaolin substitution. Metakaolin addition might reduce fresh concrete's workability and fulfill self-compacting concrete requirements specified by EFNARC 2002.

Full Text:



Anonim. (2000). SNI 03-6468-2000 Tata Cara Perencanaan Campuran Tinggi Dengan Semen Portland Dengan Abu Terbang. Badan Standardisasi Nasional, Jakarta.

Anonim. (2002). EFNARC 2002 Spesification and Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete.

Anonim. (2005). EFNARC 2005 Specification and Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete.

Anonim. (2015). Surat Edaran Menteri Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat.No. 25 Tahun 2015 Pedoman Metode Uji Pengukuran Kedalaman Karbonasi Beton Keras. Kementerian PUPR, Jakarta.

B. Bary (2004), Coupled moisture—carbon dioxide–calcium transfer model for carbonation of concrete, Cement and Concrete Research 34, pp 1859–1872.

D.C. Park, (2008), Carbonation of concrete in relation to CO2 permeability and degradation of coatings, Construction and Building Materials 22, pp. 2260–2268. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.07.032

Edna Possan, (2017), CO2 uptake potential due to concrete carbonation: A case study, Case Studies in Construction Materials 6, pp. 147–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2017.01.007

Ekolu, S.O. (2016). A Review on Effects of Curing, Sheltering, and CO2 Concentration Upon Natural Carbonation of Concrete. University of Johannesburg, Afrika Selatan.

Ho, D.W., Lewis R.K. (1987). The Water Sorptivity of Concretes: The Influences of Constituents Under Curing. Durability of Building Materials, 241-252.

Hongzhi Cui (2015), Experimental study on effects of CO2 concentrations on concrete carbonation and diffusion mechanisms, Constructionand Building Materials 93 pp. 522–527, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.06.007

Huet B., (2011), A review of Portland cement carbonation mechanisms in CO2 rich environment, Energy Procedia 4, pp. 5275–5282. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.507

In-Seok Yoon, (2007), Effect of global climatic change on carbonation progress of concrete, Atmospheric Environment 41, pp. 7274–7285. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.05.028

Isabel Galan, (2013), Natural and accelerated CO2 binding kinetics in cement paste at different relative humidities, Cement and Concrete Research 49, pp. 21–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2013.03.009

L. A. Indriyanto (2020), Pengaruh Penambahan Air Laut pada Masa Perawatan terhadap Infiltrasi Ion Klorida pada Beton dengan Penambahan Fly Ash 12.5%, Jurnal Riset Rekayasa Sipil Universitas Sebelas Maret, Vol. 3 No. 2, Maret 2020, pp 61-67

Moreno, E.I., Sagues, A.A. (1998). Carbonation-induced Corrosion on Blended-Cement Concrete Mix Designs for Highway Structures, CORROSION/1998 Paper No. 636. NACE International, Houston, TX.

Moreno, E.I. (1999). Carbonation of Blended Cement Concretes. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Florida.

Moreno, E.I., Castro, P., Leal-Murguia J. (2002). Carbonation-induced Corrosion of Urban Concrete Buildings in Yucatan, Mexico, CORROSION/2002 Paper No. 220. NACE International, Houston, TX.

Namartha, et al. (2016). Metakaolin – The Best Material for Replacement of Cemenr in Concrete. IOSR-JMCE, India.

Neville, A.M. (1987). Concrete Technology. Longman Scientific Technical, New York.

Papadakis, (1991), Experimental investigation and Mathematical Modeling of The Concrete Carbonation Problem, Chemical Engineering Science Vol. 46, No. 5/6, pp. 1333-1338

Patil, S.N., Gupta, A.K., Deshpande, S. (2016). Metakaolin – Pozzolanic Material for Cement in High Strength Concrete, IOSR-JMCE, India.

R. Neves (2013), Field assessment of the relationship between natural and accelerated concrete carbonation resistance, Cement & Concrete Composites 41, pp 9–15, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.04.006

Shi Hui-sheng, (2009), Influence of mineral admixtures on compressive strength, gas permeability and carbonation of high performance concrete, Construction and Building Materials 23, pp. 1980–1985. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.08.021

Valentin, S. (2019). Kajian Serapan dan Penetrasi pada Beton Mutu Tinggi Memadat Mandiri dengan Variasi Komposisi Metakaolin. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta.

Warda Ashraf, (2016), Carbonation of cement-based materials: Challenges and opportunities, Construction and Building Materials 120, pp. 558–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.05.080

Xin Ruan, (2011), Mesoscopic simulation method of concrete carbonation process, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 99–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15732479.2011.605370


  • There are currently no refbacks.