Performance Enhancement of Biobattery from Tropical Almond Paste Using Acetic Acid Addition

Graziani Rumbino, Lili Maniambo, Melfi Soll, Gemala Dirgantari, Octolia Togibasa


Biobattery is an alternative energy device that uses organic waste without hazardous chemicals. It is further reported that tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.) is rich in glucose content, making it a potential electrolyte for a biobattery device, although the power performance is not optimal. Therefore, this research aims to improve the performance of biobattery from tropical almond paste with the addition of acetic acid. Biobattery cells were constructed using the galvanic cell method, while the tropical almond paste as an electrolyte was stored in a box container with a volume of 600 cm³, then attached with copper and zinc metal plate as cathode and anode. Five typical devices of biobattery were made with various acid concentrations of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% which were added to the electrolyte. The results showed a significant enhancement of power performance, from 0.25 mW without any acid up to 1.62 mW with acid addition. The biobattery from tropical almond paste added with acetic acid of 20% had the best performance. Based on the results, the characterization of this device had an open cell voltage of 0.93, and the power curve showed a peak value of 1.62 mW at a current of 3.29 mA, with a stable current lasting up to 200 hr.


biobattery performance, tropical almond, electrolyte paste, glucose, acetic acid.

Full Text:



  1. Cho, J. Jeong, S., and Kim, Y. 2015. Commercial and research battery technologies for electrical energy storage applications. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 48, pp. 84-101.
  2. Abruna, H. D., Kiya, Y., and Henderson, J. C. 2008. Batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Physics Today. Vol. 61, No. 12, pp. 43-49.
  3. Scrosati, B. 2007. Paper powers battery breakthrough. Nature Nanotechnology. Vol. 2, pp. 598-599.
  4. McDowall, J. 2000. Conventional battery technologies-present and future. 2000 Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting. Seattle, WA. USA. pp. 1538-1540.
  5. Nnorom, I. C., and Osibanjo, O. 2008. Overview of electronic waste (ewaste) management practices and legislations, and their poor applications in the developing countries. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Vol. 52, No. 6, pp. 843-858.
  6. Siddiqui U. Z., and Pathrikar, A. 2013. The Future of Energy Bio Battery. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 99-111.
  7. Purohit, K. H., Emrani, S., Rodriguez, S., Liaw, S. S., Pham, L., Galvan, V., Domalaon, K., Gomez, F. A., and Haan, J. L. 2016. A microfluidic galvanic cell on a single layer of paper. Journal of Power Sources. Vol. 318, pp. 163-169.
  8. Khan, M. and Obaid, M. 2015. Comparative bioelectricity generation from waste citrus fruit using a galvanic cell, fuel cell and microbial fuel cell. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 90-99.
  9. Toygar, M. E., Incesu, O., Cetin, Z., Bayram T., and Toygar, A. 2017. SOLARUX CSP greenhouse, cultivates agricultural products, generates electrical energy, industrial fruit and vegetables drying with wasted heat energy. 2017 IEEE 6th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA). San Diego, CA, USA. pp. 189-194.
  10. Mamun M. R. A., and Torii, S. 2014. Anaerobic co-digestion of cafeteria, vegetable and fruit wastes for biogas production. 2014 International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Application (ICRERA). Milwaukee, WI, USA. pp. 369-374.
  11. Anshar, N., Maulana, A., Nurazizah, S., Nurjihan, Z., Anggraeni, S., and Nandiyanto, A. B. D. 2021. Electrical Analysis of Combination of Orange Peel and Tamarind for Bio-battery Application as an Alternative Energy. Indonesian Journal of Multidiciplinary Research. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 125-128.
  12. Sitanggang, J. E., Latifah, N. Z., Sopian, O., Saputra, Z., Nandiyanto, A. B. D., and Anggraeni, S. 2021. Analysis of Mixture Paste of Cassava Peel and Pineapple Peel as Electrolytes in Bio Battery. ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering. Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 53-56.
  13. Ansanay, Y. O., Walilo, A., and Togibasa, O. 2019. Novelty Potential of Utilizing Local Betel Nut (Areca catechu) of Papua as a Bio-battery to Produce Electricity. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 667-672.
  14. Setiawan, M., Marsuki, M. M. F., Nugraheni, D., Hanifiyah, F., and Husnayaini, N. 2020. Student’s perspective about electrical voltage of fruit cells through STEM. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 1563, pp. 012029.
  15. Togibasa, O., Haryati, E., Dahlan, K., Ansanay, Y., Siregar, T., and Liling, M. N. 2019. Characterization of Bio-battery from Tropical Almond Paste. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 1204, pp. 012036.
  16. Thomson, L. A. J., and Evans, B. 2006. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry: Terminalia catappa. In: C. R. Elevitch, ed. Terminalia catappa (Tropical Almond). Holualoa: Hawaii: Permanent Agriculture Resources. pp. 1-20.
  17. Hotang, R. R., Sarwuna, D., Munfaatun, E. S., and Togibasa, O. 2018. Pengaruh Kandungan Glukosa Terhadap Arus Listrik pada Biobaterai dari Pasta Elektrolit Ketapang. Jurnal Fisika Flux. Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 110-116.
  18. Tuurala, S., Kallio, T., Smolander, M., and Bergelin, M. 2015. Increasing performance and stability of mass-manufacturable biobatteries by ink modification. Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research. Vol. 4, pp. 61-69.
  19. Kannan, M., Renugopalakrishnan, V., Filipek, S., Li, P., Audette, G. F., and Munukutla, L. 2009. Bio-Batteries and Bio-Fuel Cells: Leveraging on Electronic Charge Transfer Proteins. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 1665-1678.
  20. Cao, M.-Q., Wu, Q.-S., Zou, and Y.-N. 2013. An Improved Ink-acetic Acid Technique for Staining Arbuscular Mycorrhizas of Citrus. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 386-388.
  21. Ajayi, F. F., and Weigele, P. R. 2012. A terracotta bio-battery. Bioresource Technology. Vol. 116, pp. 86-91.
  22. Schlemmer, W., Selinger, J., Hobisch, M. A., and Spirk, S. 2021. Polysaccharides for sustainable energy storage – A review. Carbohydrate Polymers. Vol. 265, pp. 110863.
  23. Abidin, M., Hafidh, A. F., Widyaningsih, M., Yusuf, M., and Murniati, A. 2020. Pembuatan Biobaterai Berbasis Ampas Kelapa dan Tomat Busuk. al-Kimiya: Jurnal Ilmu Kimia dan Terapan. Vol. 7, No.1, pp. 28-34.
  24. Matsunaga, S. 2021. Structural characteristics of gluconolactone/gluconic acid aqueous solution used for bio battery by molecular dynamics. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 1730, pp. 012045.


  • There are currently no refbacks.