Planning of Granular Activated Carbon Unit to Remove Ammonia and TSS at IPLT X, Kota Jakarta

Sri Dewi Handayani, Yesaya Emeraldy Priutama, Intan Rahmalia, Farhan Muhammad Hilmi, Reifaldy Tsany Betta Aryanto, Evi Siti Sofiyah, Ariyanti Sarwono, I Wayan Koko Suryawan


Abstract: Fecal sludge can be treated by conventional treatment such as pond stabilization which is commonly used to reduce organic concentrations. However, nutrients such as NH3 are still widely measured in the effluent. One of the sewerage treatments in the city of Jakarta, for example, experienced this condition. This study aims to design an appropriate technology to increase the efficiency of nutrient ammonia and total suspended solid (TSS) removal at Duri X IPLT. The unit added in the selected effluent treatment is Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). Design considerations are the characteristics of activated carbon, operating conditions (discharge and contact time), and operating mode (fixed-, expanded-, or fluidized-bed, pumped, or gravity flow). The Carbon Usage Rate for removing ammonia and TSS is 1.384 g/L and 0.378 g/L, respectively. Maintenance is required so that the granular activated carbon (GAC) unit can continue operating and functioning properly. Blockages in carbon transport pipes can occur in many pipes. This can occur due to a too-small pipe, a short bend radius of the pipe, a lack of speed, and a lack of cleaning of the pipe. The eroded pipe is also a common problem that often occurs in unlined mild steel and fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), usually in sharp bends.

Full Text:



[1] W. L. Cheong et al., “Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Food Waste with Sewage Sludge: Simulation and Optimization for Maximum Biogas Production,” Water , vol. 14, no. 7. 2022, doi: 10.3390/w14071075.

[2] I. W. K. Suryawan, A. Rahman, J. Lim, and Q. Helmy, “Environmental impact of municipal wastewater management based on analysis of life cycle assessment in Denpasar City,” Desalin. Water Treat., vol. 244, pp. 55–62, 2021, doi: 10.5004/dwt.2021.27957.

[3] R. Raksasat et al., “Blended sewage sludge–palm kernel expeller to enhance the palatability of black soldier fly larvae for biodiesel production,” Processes, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1–13, 2021, doi: 10.3390/pr9020297.

[4] N. Das and P. Chandran, “Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview,” Biotechnol. Res. Int., vol. 2011, pp. 1–13, 2011, doi: 10.4061/2011/941810.

[5] D. Park, Y.-S. Yun, and J. M. Park, “The past, present, and future trends of biosorption,” Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 86–102, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s12257-009-0199-4.

[6] I. W. K. Suryawan, G. Prajati, A. S. Afifah, and M. R. Apritama, “Nh3-n and cod reduction in endek (Balinese textile) wastewater by activated sludge under different do condition with ozone pretreatment,” Walailak J. Sci. Technol., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1–11, 2021, doi: 10.48048/wjst.2021.9127.

[7] I. Suryawan et al., “Comparison of Ozone Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment Hybrid with Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor in Removal of Remazol Black 5,” Int. J. Technol., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 728–738, 2021, [Online]. Available:


[9] Y. E. Priutama, A. Sarwono, and I. W. K. Suryawan, “EVALUASI KARAKTERISTIK AIR LIMBAH HASIL PENGOLAHAN WASTE STABILAZION POND DI KOTA JAKARTA,” Teras Jurna, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 205–214, 2022.

[10] I. Y. Septiariva and I. W. K. Suryawan, “Development of water quality index (WQI) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) for assessment around suwung landfill, Bali Island,” J. Sustain. Sci. Manag., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 137–148, 2021.

[11] M. Makmur, H. Kusnoputranto, S. S. Moersidik, and D. S. Wisnubroto, “Pengaruh Limbah Organik dan Rasio N/P Terhadap Kelimpahan Fitoplankton di Kawasan Budidaya Kerang Hijau Cilincing,” 2012.

[12] G. L. Allan, G. B. Maguire, and S. J. Hopkins, “Acute and chronic toxicity of ammonia to juvenile Metapenaeus macleayi and Penaeus monodon and the influence of low dissolved-oxygen levels,” Aquaculture, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 265–280, 1990, doi:

[13] A. Ip and S. Chew, “Ammonia Production, Excretion, Toxicity, and Defense in Fish: A Review ,” Frontiers in Physiology , vol. 1. 2010, [Online]. Available:

[14] O. Aktas and F. Cecen, “Fundamentals of Adsorption onto Activated Carbon in Water and Wastewater Treatment,” Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment. pp. 13–41, Sep. 21, 2011, doi:

[15] F. Cecen and O. Aktas, Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2012.

[16] J. C. Young and F. G. Edwards, “Factors Affecting Ballasted Flocculation Reactions,” Water Environ. Res., vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 263–272, May 2003, doi:

[17] R. Khera, P. Ransom, and T. F. Speth, “Using work breakdown structure models to develop unit treatment costs,” J. AWWA, vol. 105, no. 11, pp. E628–E641, Nov. 2013, doi:

[18] M. N. Nasruddin, M. R. Fahmi, C. Z. A. Abidin, and T. S. Yen, “Regeneration of Spent Activated Carbon from Wastewater Treatment Plant Application,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1116, p. 32022, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1116/3/032022.


  • There are currently no refbacks.