Effects of Spent and Deoiled Bleaching Earth Filler-Based NPK Fertilization on the Soil Nutrient Status and Growth of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill)

Muhammad Parikesit Wisnubroto, Eka Tarwaca Susila Putra, Budiastuti Kurniasih

Abstract

The bleaching process at the crude palm oil (CPO) refinery stage is one of the processes sufficient to determine the quality of the cooking oil produced. CPO is refined to eliminate the unacceptable substances before consumption. The process produces spent bleaching earth (SBE) and deoiled bleaching earth (DBE) classified as hazardous and toxic material waste. However, according to several studies, SBE and DBE have the potential as filler materials in NPK fertilizers. This study aimed to study the effect of SBE and DBE filler-based NPK fertilization on the soil nutrient status and growth characteristics of soybean, thereby determining if the SBE and DBE materials can be used to replace some of the filler components in the NPK fertilizers. The study was a single factor experiment arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) consisting of four blocks as replications. The treatments tested were fertilization of 10% bentonite clay mineral filler-based NPK (control), 5% bentonite clay mineral + 5% SBE filler-based NPK and 5% bentonite clay mineral + 5% DBE filler-based NPK. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and tested using LSD test at a 95% confidence level. The results showed that the SBE and DBE materials could partially replace the filler components in bentonite clay filler-based NPK fertilizers, which were shown to have the same effect on soil chemical properties and levels of heavy metals after treatment, levels and uptake of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in plants tissues and growth characteristic in the form of total dry weight.

Keywords

deoiled bleaching earth; NPK; nutrient status; soybean; spent bleaching earth

Full Text:

PDF

References

Alloway, B. J. (1995). Heavy metals in soils (2nd ed.). London: Blackie Academic & Professional.

Anugrah, C., Indradewa, D., & Putra, E. T. S. (2020). Biochemical response of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) to NPK fertilization based on spent bleaching earth in field scale. E3S Web of Conferences, 142, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202014201004

Apriliani, I. N., Heddy, S., & Suminarti, N. E. (2016). Pengaruh kalium pada pertumbuhan dan hasil dua varietas tanaman ubi jalar (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lamb). Jurnal Produksi Tanaman, 4(4), 264–270. Retrieved from http://protan.studentjournal.ub.ac.id/index.php/protan/article/view/290

Ashfaque, F., Inam, A., Sahay, S., & Iqbal, S. (2016). Influence of heavy metal toxicity on plant growth, metabolism and its alleviation by phytoremediation - A promising technology. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 6(2), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2016/23543

Barrena, R., Casals, E., Colón, J., Font, X., Sánchez, A., & Puntes, V. (2009). Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of model nanoparticles. Chemosphere, 75(7), 850–857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.01.078

Benson, N. (2014). Trace metals levels in inorganic fertilizers commercially available in Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 3(4), 610–620. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2014/7465

Brune, A., & Dietz, K. J. (1995). A Comparative analysis of element composition of roots and leaves of barley seedlings grown in the presence of toxic cadmium, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc concentrations. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 18(4), 853–868. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904169509364943

Chanrai, N. G., & Burde, S. G. (2004). Recovery of oil from spent bleached earth (Patent No. 10/188,810). Retrieved from https://patents.google.com/patent/US6780321B2/en

Delgado, A., & Gómez, J. A. (2016). The Soil. Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties. In Principles of Agronomy for Sustainable Agriculture. Springer International Publishing AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46116-8

Emamverdian, A., Ding, Y., Mokhberdoran, F., & Xie, Y. (2015). Heavy metal stress and some mechanisms of plant defense response. Scientific World Journal, 2015, 7–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/756120

Erfandy, D., & Juarsah, I. (2014). Teknologi pengendalian pencemaran logam berat pada lahan pertanian. In Konservasi tanah menghadapi perubahan iklim. Balai Penelitian Tanah, pp. 159–186. Retieved from http://balittanah.litbang.pertanian.go.id/ind/dokumentasi/buku/bungarampai07.pdf

Erizilina, E., Pamoengkas, P., & Darwo, D. (2018). Hubungan sifat fisik dan kimia tanah dengan pertumbuhan meranti merah di KHDTK Haurbentes. Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management), 8(2), 216–222. https://doi.org/10.29244/jpsl.8.2.216-222

Eviati, & Sulaeman. (2009). Petunjuk teknis analisis kimia tanah, tanaman, air, dan pupuk (2nd ed). Bogor: Balai Penelitian Tanah. Retrieved from http://balittanah.litbang.pertanian.go.id/ind/dokumentasi/juknis/juknis_kimia2.pdf.

Fageria, N. K., Baligar, V. C., & Jones, C. A. (1997). Growth and mineral nutrition of field crop (1st ed). Marcel Dekker. Inc.

Fageria, V. D. (2001). Nutrient interactions in crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 24(8), 1269–1290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/PLN-100106981

Fitriani, R. N., Budiyanto, S., & Sukarjo, S. (2019). Respon tanaman kedelai (Glycine max L. Merill) pada berbagai konsentrasi cemaran ion logam Ni2+ dengan pemberian biokompos. Journal of Agro Complex, 3(3), 184–193. https://doi.org/10.14710/joac.3.3.184-193

Ginting, E. N., Sutandi, A., Nugroho, B., & Indriyati, L. T. (2013). Rasio dan kejenuhan hara K, Ca, Mg di dalam tanah untuk tanaman kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). Jurnal Ilmu Tanah Dan Lingkungan, 15(2), 60–65. https://doi.org/10.29244/jitl.15.2.60-65

Handayanto, E., Nuraini, Y., Muddarisna, N., Netty, S., & Fiqri, A. (2017). Fitoremediasi dan Phytomining Logam Berat Pencemar Tanah. Malang: UB Press.

Harmoni, K. (2014). Analisis persebaran iklim klasifikasi Oldeman di Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta [Undergraduate thesis]. Surakarta: Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. Retrieved from http://eprints.ums.ac.id/32184/15/NASKAH%20PUBLIKASI.pdf

Hermawan, A. R. (2017). Pengaruh coating kitosan terhadap daya tahan dan penyerapan air pada formulasi pupuk granul [Undergraduate thesis]. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor. Retrieved from https://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/85543

Krisyanti, S., & Sukandar. (2011). Recovery minyak dari limbah bahan berbahaya dan beracun (B3) spent bleaching earth dengan metode ekstraksi pelarut. Jurnal Teknik Lingkungan, 17(1), 35–46. Retrieved from https://ftsl.itb.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2017/03/4.-Sri-Krisyanti-Sukandar.pdf

Lavres, J., Franco, G. C., & Câmara, G. M. S. (2016). Soybean seed treatment with nickel improves biological nitrogen fixation and urease activity. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 4, 37. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00037

Li, C., Dang, F., Li, M., Zhu, M., Zhong, H., Hintelmann, H., & Zhou, D. (2017). Effects of exposure pathways on the accumulation and phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in soybean and rice. Nanotoxicology, 11(5), 699–709. https://doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2017.1344740

Lidon, F. C., & Henriques, F. S. (1993). Effects of copper toxicity on growth and the uptake and translocation of metals in rice plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 16(8), 1449–1464. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904169309364626

Loh, S. K., Cheong, K. Y., Choo, Y. M., & Salimon, J. (2015). Formulation and optimisation of spent bleaching earth-based bio organic fertiliser. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 27(1), 57–66. Retrieved from http://jopr.mpob.gov.my/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Pages-from-JOPR271_web-61.pdf

Mba, O. I., Dumont, M. J., & Ngadi, M. (2015). Palm oil: Processing, characterization and utilization in the food industry - A review. Food Bioscience, 10, 26–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2015.01.003

Mousavi, S. R., Galavi, M., & Rezaei, M. (2012). The interaction of zinc with other elements in plants : A review. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4(24), 1881–1884. Retrieved from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20133031574

Mustikawati, D., Suntoro, & Pardono. (2019). The effect of cow manure application and watering interval on patchouli growth in regosol soil. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 250(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/250/1/012086

Nair, P. M. G., & Chung, I. M. (2014). A mechanistic study on the toxic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles in soybean (Glycine max L.) root development and lignification of root cells. Biological Trace Element Research, 162(1–3), 342–352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0106-5

Nariratih, I., Damanik, M. M. B., & Sitanggang, G. (2013). Ketersediaan nitrogen pada tiga jenis tanah akibat pemberian tiga bahan organik dan serapannya pada tanaman jagung. Jurnal Agroeko-teknologi Universitas Sumatera Utara, 1(3), 479–488. https://doi.org/10.32734/jaet.v1i3.2645

Nursyamsi, D., & Setyorini, D. (2009). Ketersediaan P tanah-tanah netral dan alkalin. Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim, 30, 25–36. Retrieved from http://balittanah.litbang.deptan.go.id/eng/dokumentasi/prosiding2008pdf/dedy_nur_alkalin.pdf

Pasaribu, K. F., & Sukandar, S. (2017). Analisis manfaat biaya pengelolaan limbah spent bleaching earth melalui pemanfaatan dan penimbunan dengan memperhitungkan nilai gas rumah kaca. Jurnal Tehnik Lingkungan, 23(2), 33–42. https://doi.org/10.5614/j.tl.2017.23.2.4

Pitaloka, N. D. A. (2004). Uji efektivitas ketersediaan unsur fosfat pada tanah typic tropoquent dataran alluvial berdasarkan dosis dan waktu inkubasi. Jurnal Agrifar, 2(3), 70–75. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?cluster=17628602925160316540&hl=id&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&authuser=3&scioq=+Uji+efektivitas+ketersediaan+unsur+fosfat+pada+tanah+typic+tropoquent+dataran+alluvial+berdasarkan+dosis+dan+waktu+inkubasi.+

Pratap, A., Gupta, S. K., Kumar, J., & Solanki, R. K. (2012). Soybean. In Technological innovations in major world oil crops, Volume 1: Breeding. Springer Science+Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-0356-2

Purba, R. S., Irwan, S. N. R., & Putra, E. T. S. (2020). The effect of spent bleaching earth filler-based npk fertilization on proline, growth and yield of maize. Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 35(1), 44–53. https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v35i1.34166

Rai, P. K., Lee, S. S., Zhang, M., Tsang, Y. F., & Kim, K.-H. (2019). Heavy metals in food crops: Health risks, fate, mechanisms, and management. Environment International, 125, 365–385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.067

Sevindrajuta. (1996). Peranan cacing tanah (Pontoscolex corethrurus) dan macam bahan organik dalam perbaikan beberapa sifat fisika Ultisol Rimbo Data dan hasil kedelai [Master thesis]. Padang: Universitas Andalas. Universitas Andalas.

Sharma, P. N., Kumar, N., & Bisht, S. S. (1994). Effect of zinc deficiency on chlorophyll contents, photosyntehsis, and water relations of cauliflower plants. Photosyntehtica, 30, 353–359. Retrieved from https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=CZ9500369

Shofi, M. (2017). Daya hambat perak nitrat (AgNO3) pada perkecambahan biji kacang hijau (Vigna radiata). Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi, 10(2), 98–104. https://doi.org/10.15408/kauniyah.v10i2.4869

Siedlecka, A. (1995). Some aspects op interactions between heavy metals and plant mineral nutrients. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 64(3), 265–272. https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.1995.035

Sinaga, R. A., Kurniasih, B., & Putra, E. T. S. (2021). Growth and yield of soybean as a response of the fertilization of NPK compound produced with spent and deoiled bleaching earth filler. Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 36(1), 11–19. https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v36i1.35682

Smith, J. C. Jr. (1982). Interrelationship of zinc and vitamin A metabolism in animal and human nutrition: A review. In Clinical, Biochemical and Nutritional Aspects of Trace Elements. New York: A. S. Prasad, ed., Alan R. Liss, Inc.. Retrieved from https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US8608667

Soeparjono, S. (2016). The effect of media composition and organic fertilizer concentration on the growth and yield of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 9, 450–455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.02.162

Solihin, E., Sudirja, R., Damayani, M., & Kamaludin, N. N. (2018). Hubungan serapan N, P, dan K tanaman cabai terhadap residunya di dalam tanah yang diberi pupuk cair organik dengan NPK. Agrikultura, 29(2), 105. https://doi.org/10.24198/agrikultura.v29i2.20807

Soltangheisi, A., Rahman, Z. A., Ishak, C. F., Musa, H. M., & Zakikhani, H. (2014). Interaction effects of phosphorus and zinc on their uptake and 32P absorption and translocation in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata) grown in a tropical soil. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 13(3), 129–135. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2014.129.135

Sonbai, J. H. H., Prajitno, D., & Syukur, A. (2013). Pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung pada berbagai pemberian pupuk nitrogen di lahan kering regosol. Ilmu Pertanian, 16(1), 77–89. Retrieved from https://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/jip/article/view/2527

Suhariyono, G., & Menry, Y. (2005). Analisis karakteristik unsur-unsur dalam tanah di berbagai lokasi dengan menggunakan xrf. Prosiding PPI-PDIPTN, 197–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2014.12.012

Taufiq, A. (2014). Identifikasi masalah keharaan tanaman kedelai. Malang: Balai Penelitian Tanaman Aneka Kacang dan Umbi.

Taufiq, A., & Sundari, T. (2012). Respons tanaman kedelai terhadap lingkungan tumbuh. Buletin Palawija, 23, 13–26. Retrieved from http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/bulpa/article/view/1297

Tjahjadi, N. (1989). Hama dan penyakit tanaman. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius.

Vispute, P., & Dabhade, S. (2018). Refining of palm oil: A review on palm oil refining process, 3- MCPD esters in refined palm oil, and possible reduction tactics for 3-MCPD esters. International Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 11, 81–85. https://doi.org/10.15740/has/ijae/11.sp.issue/81-85

Vitosh, M. L., Johnson, J. W., & Mengel, D. B. (1995). Tri-state fertilizer recommendations for corn, soybeans, wheat and alfalfa. Extension Bulletin E-2567, 1–21. Retrieved from https://agcrops.osu.edu/FertilityResources/tri-state_info

Wambu, E. W., Muthakia, G. K., Shiundu, P. M., & Thiongo, K. J. (2009). Kinetics of copper desorption from regenerated spent bleaching earth. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 4(4), 317–323. Retrieved from http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/33991

Weber, M. B., Schat, H., & Ten Bookum-Van der Maarel, W. M. (1991). The effect of copper toxicity on the contents of nitrogen compounds in Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke. Plant Soil, 133, 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00011904

Wisnubroto, M. P., Putra, E. T. S., & Kurniasih, B. (2020). Tanggapan Biokemis, Fisiologis, dan Agronomis Kedelai (Glycine max L. Merrill) terhadap Pemupukan NPK Berperekat Spent dan Deoiled Bleaching Earth (Unpublished master's thesis). Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.