Effect of Shading and Mowing on the Growth of Indonesia’s Native Zoysia grass in Silty Clay Soil

Rahayu Rahayu, Mujiyo Mujiyo, Randy Ramadhan, Geun Mo Yang, Joon Soo Choi


In general, turfgrass grows well and forms high quality turf under full sun exposure. It is very difficult, however, to grow a warm season turfgrass under shaded condition. Zoysia grass is a popular warm season grass that commonly grow under full sun exposure condition. There are limited information regarding the growth response and turf quality of zoysia grass when grown under shaded condition. This study aims to observe the growth and quality of various zoysia grass local cultivars at different shading intensities and different mowing. This research was carried out using 10 zoysia grass cultivars planted in the rice fields’ vertisol clay with randomized complete block design. The shading used were control, shade-nets with 25% and 65% hole densities. Zoysia grass was fertilized using NPK; 4:1:3 and mowed three times. The results showed that plants without shade, 25% and 65% received on average solar irradiance of 25,141; 12,456 and 3,727 lux. The increase in shade level decreased the shoot fresh weight, dry weight, root dry weight and the plant height. Shading and frequent mowing effected the plant height. Mowing has more effect on plant height in 25% shading than in 65% shading. The increase in shading, in mowed grass showed increased plant height and decreased plant dry weight. Mowing three times can reduce plant height in all shades. The grasses under 25% shading resulted the highest plant dry weight; whereas and shading 65% resulted the lowest. Plant dry weight and uniformity of turf were affected by the cultivars.


growth; mowing; shading; zoysia grass

Full Text:



Alvarenga, A. A., Evaristo, M. C., Erico, C., Lima, J., & Marcelo, M. M. (2004). Effects of different light levels on the initial growth and photosynthetic of Croton urucurana Baill in Southeastern Brazil. Revista Árvore, 27, 53–57. Crossref

An, S., Darboux, F., & Cheng, M. (2013). Revegetation as an efficient means of increasing soil aggregate stability on the Loess Plateau (China). J. Geoderma, 209–210, 75–85. Crossref

Anderson, S. J. (2000). Taxonomy of Zoysia (Poaceae): Morphological and molecular variation. Thesis. Texas A & M University College Station TX. Retrieved from Link

Asriyanti, W., & Irmasari. (2015). Pengaruh berbagai intensitas naungan terhadap pertumbuhan semai eboni (Diospyros celebica Bakh.). Jurnal Warta Rimba, 3(2), 103–110. Retrieved from Link

Audina, N. M., Maxiselly, Y., & Rosniawaty, S. (2016). Pengaruh kerapatan naungan dan frekuensi penyiraman terhadap pertumbuhan bibit kemiri sunan (Reutealis trisperma (BLANCO) Airy Shaw). Jurnal Kultivasi, 15(2), 70–73. Crossref

Baldwin, C., Liu, H., McCarty, L. B., Rajapakse, N. C., Luo, H., & Toler, J. E. (2007). Altered Light Spectral Qualities Impacts on Warm-Season Turfgrass Growth and Development. USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online, 7(9), 1–12. Retrieved from Link.pdf or Link

Beard, J. B. (1973). Turfgrass science and culture. Englewood Cliffs, NewJersey, USA: Prentice Hall, Inc. Retrieved from Link

Beard, J. B. (1997). Shade stresses and adaptation mechanisms of turf grasses. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, 8, 1186–1195. Retrieved from Link

Beard, J. B., Beard, H. J., & Beard, J. C. (2014). Turfgrass history and literature: Lawns, sports, and golf. East Lansing, USA: Michigan State Univ. Press. Retrieved from Link

Bradley, S., Henry, G. M., & Dick, L. (2009). Evaluation of Zoysiagrass Genotypes for Shade Tolerance. HortScience, 44(5), 1447–1451. Crossref

Celesti-Grapow, L., Alessandrini, A., Arrigoni, P., Banfi, E., Bernardo, L., Bovio, M., … & Blasi, C. (2009). Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy. Plant Biosystems, 143(2), 386–430. Crossref

Dhika, D. (2014). Shade Making. Journal of Basic Practices in Agronomy. Department of Agro Technology. Faculty of Agriculture, North Sumatra Islamic University.

Dudeck, A., & Peacock, C. (1992). Shade and Turfgrass Culture. In Turfgrass (eds Waddington, D. V., Carrow, R. N., & Shearman, R. C.), 32, pp. 269–284. Crossref

Emmons, R. (2000). Turfgrass Science and Management (Third). New York, USA: Cengange Delmar Learning. Retrieved from Link

Engelke, M. C., & Anderson, S. (2003). Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp.). In: Casler M.D., & Duncan, R. R. (eds.). Turfgrass biology genetics and breeding. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 271–285. Retrieved from Link

Faridah, E. (1996). Effects of Light Intensity, Mycorrhiza and Charcoal Powder on Natural Growth of Rybalanops Sp. Research Bulletin, Fahutan UGM Yogyakarta, 29, 21–28. Retrieved from Link

Fry, J. D., & Huang, B. (2004). Applied turfgrass science and physiology. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons.. Retrieved from Link

Fry, J. D., Zhang, Q., Okeyo, D., Engelke, M., & Genovesi, D. (2008). Improved Zoysia cultivar could have use in transition zone. Turfgrass Trends Golfdom Cleveland OH, 60–61. Retrieved from Link

Lakshmipathy, M., Prasad, K. V., Manjaiah, K. M., Janakiram, T., & Namita. (2018). Performance of turfgrasses on a clay based simulated cricket pitch under varied levels of soil compaction and ABA. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 75(3), 512–516. Crossref

Livesley, S. J., Ossola, A., Threlfall, C. G., Hahs, A. K., & Williams, N. S. G. (2016). Soil Carbon and Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio Change under Tree Canopy, Tall Grass, and Turf Grass Areas of Urban Green Space. Journal of Environmental Quality, 45(1), 215–223. Crossref

Mayasari, A., Kinho, J., & Suryawan, A. (2012). The Association of Ebony (Diospyros Spp.) and Dominant Tree Species in Tangkoko Nature Reserve North Sulawesi. Manado Forestry Research Institute Manado BPK Information, 2(1), 55–71. Retrieved from Link

Monteiro, J. A. (2017). Ecosystem services from turfgrass landscapes. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 26, 151–157. Crossref

Mulyono, D. (2012). Pengaruh Kombinasi Intensitas Naungan dengan Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Indole Butiric Acid (IBA), Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), dan Vitamin B1 dalam Aklimatisasi Pertumbuhan Bibit Gaharu (Aquilaria beccariana). Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Indonesia, 14(3), 167–173. Crossref

Munandar, A., & Hardjosuwignyo, S. (1990). Landscape grass. Bogor Institute of Agriculture.

Okeyo, D. O., Fry, D. J., Bremer, D. J., Chandra, A., Genovesi, A. D., & Engelke, M. C. (2014). Stolon growth and tillering of experimental zoysiagrasses in shade. HortScience, 49(11), 1444–1448. Crossref

Pantilu, L. I., Mantiri, F. R., Ai, N. S., & Pandiangan, D. (2012). Respons Morfologi dan Anatomi Kecambah Kacang Kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merill) terhadap Intensitas Cahaya yang Berbeda. Journal of Bioslogos, 2(2), 81–87. Crossref

Patton, A. (2009). Growing turfgrass in shade. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Arkansas University, Division of Agriculture. Retrieved from Link

Patton, A., & Boyd, J. (2012). Choosing a Grass for Arkansas Lawns. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Arkansas University, Division of Agriculture. Retrieved from Link

Peterson, K., Fry, J. D., & Bremer, D. J. (2014). Growth Responses of Zoysia spp. under Tree Shade in the Midwestern United States. HortScience, 49(11), 1444–1448. Crossref

Qian, Y. L., Engelke, M. C., Foster, M. J. V., & Reynolds, S. (1998). Trinexapac-ethyl restricts shoot growth and improves quality of ‘Diamond’ zoysiagrass under shade. HortScience, 33(6), 1019–1022. Crossref

Rahayu, Mujiyo, Syamsiyah, J., Ji, B. E., Min, C. S., Mo, Y. G., & Soo, C. J. (2016). Survey on native Zoysiagrass in Indonesia: Its spread and characteristics. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(21), 12534–12537. Retrieved from Link

Rahayu, Syamsiyah, J., & Nikmatus, L. (2020). Aggregate stability of Alfisols root zone upon turfgrass treatment. Sains Tanah Journal of Soil Science and Agroclimatology, 17(1), 50–56. Crossref

Sitompul, S. M., & Guritno, B. (1995). Effect of Shading, Mycorrizha Inoculated and Organic Matter on The Growth of Hopea Gregaria Seedling. Buletin Penelitian Fahutan UGM Yogyakarta, 28, 18–27. Retrieved from Link

Sladek, B. S., Henry, G. M., & Auld, D. L. (2009). Evaluation of zoysiagrass genotypes for shade tolerance. HortScience, 44(5), 1447–1451. Crossref

Syers, J. K., Nyamudeza, P., & Ahenkorah, Y. (2001). Sustainable nutrient management of Vertisols. In. Syers, J. K., Penning de Vries, F. W. T., Nyamudeza, P. Editor(s). The Sustainable Management of Vertisols. New York, USA: CABI, pp. 43–55. Crossref

Turgeon, A. J. (2002). Turfgrass Management (6th Edition). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved from Link

Unruh, J. B., Trenholm, L. E., & Cisar, J. L. (2017). Zoysia grasses for Florida lawns. Florida University. Retrieved from Link

Wherley, B. G., Skulkaew, P., Chandra, A., Genovesi, A. D., & Engelke, M. C. (2011). Low-input performance of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) cultivars maintained under dense tree shade. Hort Science, 46(7), 1033–1037. Crossref

Wijayanto, N., & Nurunnajah. (2012). Intensitas Cahaya, Suhu, Kelembaban dan Perakaran Lateral Mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla King.) di RPH Babakan Madang, BKPH Bogor, KPH Bogor. Journal of Tropical Silviculture, 3(1), 8–13. Retrieved from Link


  • There are currently no refbacks.