Systematic Review: The Covid-19 Pandemic Effects on Maternal Anxiety During Pregnancy

Niken Bayu Argaheni

Abstract

Background: Anxiety is a common response to any stressful situation. Pregnant women are more likely to catch viral illnesses, and the Coronavirus can cause stress and anxiety in pregnant women in different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on maternal anxiety during pregnancy.

Method: Systematic review using the database: Google Scholar. The search results that meet the criteria are then analyzed for articles.

Result: The saturation of mass media and social media with news related to COVID-19 and the dissemination of information in it provides a climate of fear, uncertainty and anxiety, about the present and the future. This will be magnified for pregnant women today who, even without a pandemic, generally pregnant women experience feelings of uncertainty and anxiety related to childbirth, childbirth, the presence of a baby and the care of a newborn.

Conclusion: Pregnant women have a greater psychological impact as well as higher anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Identification of pregnant women who are at high risk of anxiety that occurs during the Covid-19 pandemic is important so that health workers can suggest early psychological intervention and prevent some complications related to stress in pregnancy.

 

Keywords

Pregnant women, anxiety, Covid-19 pandemic

Full Text:

PDF

References

Mappa I, Distefano FA, Rizzo G. Effects of coronavirus 19 pandemic on maternal anxiety during pregnancy: a prospectic observational study. J Perinat Med. 2020;48(6):545–50.

Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. QJM. 2020;113(5):311–2.

Ravaldi C, Wilson A, Ricca V, Homer C, Vannacci A. Pregnant women voice their concerns and birth expectations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Women and Birth [Internet]. 2020;(2019). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2020.07.002

Tyrer P, Salkovskis P, Tyrer H, Wang D, Crawford MJ, Dupont S, et al. Cognitive-behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients (Champ): A randomised controlled trial with outcomes to 5 years. Health Technol Assess (Rockv). 2017;21(50):1–88.

Corbett GA, Milne SJ, Hehir MP, Lindow SW, O’connell MP. Health anxiety and behavioural changes of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2020;249:96–7.

Preis H, Mahaffey B, Heiselman C, Lobel M. Pandemic-related pregnancy stress and anxiety among women pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM [Internet]. 2020;100155. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100155

Schwartz DA, Graham AL. Potential maternal and infant outcomes from coronavirus 2019-NCOV (SARS-CoV-2) infecting pregnant women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and other human coronavirus infections. Viruses. 2020;12(2):1–16.

Yan W, Wang X, Kuang H, Chen Y, Baktash MB, Eskenazi B, et al. Physical activity and blood pressure during pregnancy: Mediation by anxiety symptoms. J Affect Disord [Internet]. 2020;264(November):376–82. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.056

Chasson M, Taubman - Ben-Ari O, Abu-Sharkia S. Jewish and Arab pregnant women’s psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic: the contribution of personal resources. Ethn Heal. 2020;

Glover V. Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; What needs to be done. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol [Internet]. 2014;28(1):25–35. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.08.017

Martini J, Petzoldt J, Einsle F, Beesdo-Baum K, Höfler M, Wittchen HU. Risk factors and course patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders during pregnancy and after delivery: A prospective-longitudinal study. J Affect Disord. 2015;175:385–95.

Ding XX, Wu Y Le, Xu SJ, Zhu RP, Jia XM, Zhang SF, et al. Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Affect Disord. 2014;159(81):103–10.

Coelho HF, Murray L, Royal-Lawson M, Cooper PJ. Antenatal anxiety disorder as a predictor of postnatal depression: A longitudinal study. J Affect Disord [Internet]. 2011;129(1–3):348–53. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.08.002

Lindgren K. Relationships among maternal-fetal attachment, prenatal depression, and health practices in pregnancy. Res Nurs Heal. 2001;24(3):203–17.

Shahhosseini Z, Pourasghar M, Khalilian A, Salehi F. A Review of the Effects of Anxiety During Pregnancy on Children’s Health. Mater Socio Medica. 2015;27(3):200.

Brunton PJ. Effects of maternal exposure to social stress during pregnancy: Consequences for mother and offspring. Reproduction. 2013;146(5).

Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr [Internet]. 2020;51(April):102083. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083

Nasab MB, Bahmaei H, Askari S, Ghanbari S, Iravani M. The Relationship between Health Anxiety and Prenatal Distress with Choosing the Type of Childbirth in Pregnant Women during Covid-19 Outbreaks in Iran. Res Sq. 2020;1–16.

Nwafor JI, Okedo-Alex IN, Ikeotuonye AC. Prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among pregnant women during COVID-19-related lockdown in Abakaliki, Nigeria. medRxiv. 2020;3–10.

Luo Y, Yin K. Management of pregnant women infected with COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis [Internet]. 2020;20(5):513–4. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30191-2

Fakari FR, Simbar M. Coronavirus Pandemic and Worries during Pregnancy. JournalsSbmuAcIr [Internet]. 2020;8(January):2–3. Available from: http://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/aaem

Taubman–Ben-Ari O, Chasson M, Abu Sharkia S, Weiss E. Distress and anxiety associated with COVID-19 among Jewish and Arab pregnant women in Israel. J Reprod Infant Psychol [Internet]. 2020;38(3):340–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2020.1786037

Yue C, Liu C, Wang J, Zhang M, Wu H, Li C, et al. Association between social support and anxiety among pregnant women in the third trimester during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Qingdao, China: The mediating effect of risk perception. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020;(308).

Maharlouei N, Keshavarz P, Lankarani KB. Depression and Anxiety Among Pregnant Mothers in the Initial Stage of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic in Southwest of Iran. Res Sq [Internet]. 2020;1–15. Available from: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-71528/latest?utm_source=researcher_app&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=RESR_MRKT_Researcher_inbound

Dagklis T, Tsakiridis I, Mamopoulos A, Athanasiadis A, Papazisis G. Anxiety During Pregnancy in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic. SSRN Electron J. 2020;

Wu Y, Zhang C, Liu H, Duan C, Li C, Fan J, et al. Perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms of pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China. Am J Obstet Gynecol [Internet]. 2020;223(2):240.e1-240.e9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.009

Castro P, Castro P, Narciso C, Matos AP, Werner H, Araujo E, et al. Pregnant, uninfected, stressed, and confined in the COVID-19 period: What can we expect in the near future? Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2020;66(4):386–7.

Ahorsu DK, Imani V, Lin CY, Timpka T, Broström A, Updegraff JA, et al. Associations Between Fear of COVID-19, Mental Health, and Preventive Behaviours Across Pregnant Women and Husbands: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Modelling. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2020;

Corbett GA, Milne SJ, Mohan S, Reagu S, Farrell T, Lindow SW, et al. Anxiety and Depression Scores in Maternity Healthcare Workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;(June):16–7.

Davenport MH, Meyer S, Meah VL, Strynadka MC, Khurana R. Moms Are Not OK: COVID-19 and Maternal Mental Health. Front Glob Women’s Heal. 2020;1(June):1–6.

Ravaldi C, Ricca V, Wilson A, Homer C, Vannacci A. Previous psychopathology predicted severe COVID-19 concern, anxiety and PTSD symptoms in pregnant women during lockdown in Italy. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020;2020.08.26.20182436. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.26.20182436

Moyer C, Compton S, Kaselitz E, Muzik M. Pregnancy-related anxiety during COVID-19: A nationwide survey of 2,740 pregnant women. 2020;1–16.

Biaggi A, Conroy S, Pawlby S, Pariante CM. Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: A systematic review. J Affect Disord [Internet]. 2016;191:62–77. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.014

Liu X, Chen M, Wang Y, Sun L, Zhang J, Shi Y, et al. Prenatal anxiety and obstetric decisions among pregnant women in Wuhan and Chongqing during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2020;127(10):1229–40.

Patabendige M, Gamage MM, Weerasinghe M, Jayawardane A. Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women in Sri Lanka. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;151(1):150–3.

Tang X, Lu Z, Hu D, Zhong X. Influencing factors for prenatal Stress, anxiety and depression in early pregnancy among women in Chongqing, China. J Affect Disord. 2019;253(May):292–302.

Kang YT, Yao Y, Dou J, Guo X, Li SY, Zhao CN, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of maternal anxiety in late pregnancy in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(5).

Zhang Y, Muyiduli X, Wang S, Jiang W, Wu J, Li M, et al. Prevalence and relevant factors of anxiety and depression among pregnant women in a cohort study from south-east China. J Reprod Infant Psychol [Internet]. 2018;36(5):519–29. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2018.1492098

Saccone G, Florio A, Aiello F, Venturella R, De Angelis MC, Locci M, et al. Psychological impact of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;223(2):293–5.

Suda T, Miura Y, Katayama M, Senba H, Takahata M, Nakano S. Worries and concerns about COVID-19 lockdown aggravate stress reactions among pregnant women. 2020;1–13. Available from: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-45832/v1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.