STUDI PEREKAT SOSIAL PADA ETNIK BERPOTENSI KONFLIK SEBAGAI UPAYA MENCIPTAKAN KEHARMONISAN LINGKUNGAN SOSIAL-BUDAYA MELALUI PENDEKATAN SOCIAL CAPITAL DI KAMPUNG BALONG, KOTA SURAKARTA (Studi Kasus Etnis Cina-Jawa)

Jamal Wiwoho

Abstract

Theproblemstatements ofthe research are as follows: (1) Howare the history, process, and develop mentofthe Chinese ethnic who resides withthe local ethnic in the residential area ofBalong, Surakarta?; (2)Howfarare the conflictpotentials toemerge, and whatconflicts alreadyhappened there?;and (3) What factors cause the conflicts? Thesubjects of the research are the Chinese Ethnicand Javanese ethnic residing in the residen tialarea ofBalong, Surakarta City. Theresearch useda qualitative descriptiveapproach. Itsdata sources wereinformants, placesand events, anddocuments/archives'. The dataweregatheredbyusing: (1)ques tionnaire, (2) in-depth interview, (3) participatory observation, (4) content analysis, and (5) Focus Group Discussion. Itssamples weretaken byusingproportional stratified, purposive, andsnowballsamplings. In order toobtain highly-valid data, theywerevalidated byusingrecheckandpeer debriefing triangulations. Theywerethen analyzedbyusinganinteractive analysis comprising fouranalysisstages: (1)datagather
ing, (2) datareduction, (3) datadisplay, and(4) dataverification/conclusion. Based on the results of the analysis, conclusions are made as follows: (1) the economic and
politicalpressuresinthePeople'Republic ofChina forced theChinesepeopletoleave for South-EastAsia including Indonesia tomaketheir wayinlife. The increasing number of Chinese peopleinSurakarta and their increasing participation in economy made Pakubuwono IV, the King of Surakarta (1788 - 1820)
choose and decide a location fortheirsettlement, thatis, Balong. (2) The conflictsbetween the Chinese ethnicand theJavanese ethnictookplace in 1980and 1998. Thescope of the former is small,butitbrings aboutlarge trauma to the Chinese. Meanwhile, thescope of the latter is big, butitonlycauses a small trauma tothem as therehas been a goodandan intimate relationship betweentheChineseethnic andthe Javaneseethnic. (3) The factors that causedtheconflicts were: (a)socialfactor, theChinese ethnic often tends tolive in a group andhas few social interactions with other ethnics; (b) cultural factor, the Chinese
ethnic who comes to Indonesia brings their own cultures, custom, andtraditions, which are derived from Confucianism and Buddha; these allegedly less appreciate the localcultures; and (c) economic factor, most of the Chinese work in the field of trading, andeconomically theyare strongerthan the local ethnic. Thismakes economicjealousy to the local ethnic.

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