BAHASA PASER DI KALIMANTAN KAJIAN LINGUISTIK DIAKRONIS

Nurul Fazriani, Inyo Yos Fernandez, Wakit Abdullah

Abstract


  

This research conducts to study and to clarify the status of PSR language in East Kalimantan using a comparative historical linguistics. Linguists have radically different opinion in defining the status of PSR language; Hudson (1967) classified PSR language into Barito Timur Laut language family, Riwut (1961) classified PSR language into Dayak Ngaju language family, while Wurm & Shiro (1983) dan Cense & Uhlenbeck (1958) classified PSR language into Melayu language family.

This research used mixed method between quantitative and qualitative. The instrument of this this research were Swadesh as a primary instrument and Notehofer vocabulary as a complementary instrument. The data analysis was done by comparing PSR language to LWG language from Dayak language family and BJR language from Melayu language family covering phonological and lexical aspects.

The result of the synchronic study shows several things on the phonological aspect. First, PSR and LWG language have similarity in the distribution of vocal phoneme of /o/ and consonant phoneme of /q/ which are not found in BJR language that merely has high vocal of /i/ and /u/ and low vocal of /a/. Second, PSR and LWG language have similarity in the distribution of /e/ ph oneme which is not distributing in the last position. Third, PSR and LWG language don’t have consonant phoneme of /h/ which is found in BJR language. Fourth, PSR language does not have diphthong of ew/ and /Əw/ which are found in LWG and BJR languages.

The result of the diachronic study obtained from quantitative and qualitative analysis. From the quantitative analysis using lexicostatistics technique, presentation of historical relationship among languages were obtained; PSR-LWG by 51%, PSR-BJR 24%, and LWG-BJR 12%. In the qualitative analysis, it is found that the correspondence of the phoneme is regular. Phonemes of /e/, /o/, /l/, /c/ PSR language corresponds respectively to the phonemes of /i/, /ə/, /e/, /r/, /s/ in the position of ultima, penultimate and prapenultima on LWG language. Furthermore, based on a joint lexical innovation that occurs in the PSR and LWG languages, there are a number of lexical data found which shows similarities in both languages.

 

Keywords: Paser Language, Sinchronic, Diachronic, Quantitative, Qualitative,
                     Lexicostatistics, Reconstruction


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adelaar, K. Alexander. 1992. Proto Malayic: The Description of its Phonology and Parts of its Lexicon and Morphology. Publikasi Bersama Pusat Pembinaan dan

Pengembangan Bahasa Universitas Leiden

Adelaar, K. Alexander. 1995. Borneo as a Cross-Road for Comparative Austronesian Linguistics. Dalam Peter Bellwood dkk (ed.). The Austronesian: Historical & Comparative Perspectives. Canberra: The Australian National University.

Anceaux, J.C 1994. Pijar-Pijar Karya Anceaux. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa.

Aswaradini, Wulan. 2013. Bahasa Tidung di Kabupaten Nunukan Kalimantan Utara: Kajian Lingusitik Diakronis. Thesis S-2.Yogyakarta: UGM

Ayatrohaedi, 1979. Dialektiologi Sebuah Pengantar. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan

Ayatrohaedi, 1979. Kamus Khusus Penelitian Kekerabatan dan Pemetaan Bahasa- Bahasa Daerah di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan

Blust, R.A. Basic Vocabulary of Swadesh List. Mimeograph. 1981

Cense A.A. dan E.M. Uhlenbeck. 1958. Language of Borneo: Critical Survey of Study on the Language of Borneo. Bibiliogtaphival series II of the Royal Institute of languages and Cultures. s'Grevenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.

Chaer, Abdul. 2003. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta

Crowley, Terry. 1987. An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. Papua New Guinea: University of Papua New Guinea Press.

Crowley, Terry dan Bowern, Claire. 2010. An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press

Darmansyah,dkk. 1979. Bahasa Paser. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Dempwolff, Otto. 1938. Vergleichende Lauthehre des Austronesischen Wortshatezes.

Berlin: Dietrich Reiner

Djurdje Durasid. 1990. Rekonstruksi Proto Bahasa Barito. Fakultas Pascasarjana

Universitas Indonesia.

Dyen, Isodore dan Curtis McFarland. 1970. Proto Austronesian Etyma. (Sources and

Abrevitations)

Edward. Djamaris, dkk. 1996. Nilai Budaya dalam Beberapa Karya Sastra Nusantara: Sastra Daerah di Kalimantan. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan

Fernandez, Inyo Yos. 1996. Relasi Historis Kekerabatan Bahasa Flores: Kajian Linguistik Historis Komparatif Terhadap Sembilan Bahasa di Flores. Ende: Nusa Indah

Fernandez, Inyo Yos. 2013. Linguistik Historis Comparative. Yogyakarta : Modul Perkuliahan.

Fudiat Suryadikara, dkk. 1985. Struktur Bahasa Lawangan. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan

Hale, Mark. 2007. Historical Linguistic: Theory and Method. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.

Hudson, Alferd B. 1967. The Barito Isolects of Borneo: a classification Based on Comparative reconstruction and lexicostatistics. New York: Cornell University. Keraf, Gorys. 1984. Linguistik Bandingan Historis. Jakarta. PT. Gramedia.

Kridalaksana, Harimurti. 1978. Beberapa Masalah Linguistik Indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Kridalaksana, Harimurti, 2008. Kamus Linguistik. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Kushartanti. 2005. Pesona Bahasa. Lnagkah Awal Memeahami Linguistik. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Lehmann, W. P. 1973. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. London and New York: Routledge.

Lembaga Bahasa Nasional. 1972. “Peta Bahasa-Bahasa di Indonesia”. Bahasa dan Kesusastraan Seri Chusus No. 10. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Mahsun. 2000. "Penelitian Bahasa: Berbagai Tahapan Strategi, Metode, dan Teknik- tekniknya". Universitas Mataram

Mahsun. 2007. Metode Penelitian Bahasa: Tahapan, Strategi, Metode, dan Tekniknya. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada

Mahsun, Fernandez, Inyo Yos. 2008. Bahasa dan Peta Bahasa di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan

Masrukhi, Mohammad. 2002. Refleksi Fonologis Protobahasa Austronesia (PAN) pada bahasa Lubu (BL), dalam Humaniora. Volum XIV hlm. 86-93. Yogyakarta: FIB UGM

Melong, L.J. 2002. Metodologi Penuliasan Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Miles, Matthew B dan Huberman A.M. 1992. Qualitative Data Analysis. Diterjemahkan oleh Tjetjep Rohendi. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press.

Misrita. 2000. "Bahasa Sampit di Kamimantan Tengah: Kajian linguistik Diakronis". Tesis S2.Yogyakarta: UGM

Nikolic, Hristina. 2008 Relasi Historis Bahasa Benuaq Dalam Silsilah Kekerabatan Bahasa-Bahasa Barito. Tesis S2. Surakarta: UNS

Purwaka, Albertus. 2008. Bahasa Kantingan di Kalimatan Tengah: Kajian Linguistik Diakronis di Bidang Fonologi, Leksikon, dan Morfologi. Tesis S2.Yogyakarta: UGM.

Pusat Pengembangan Bahasa. 2008. Bahasa dan Peta Bahasa di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.

Riwut, Tjilik. 1961. Kalimantan Memanggil. Palangka Raya: Pusaka Lima.

SIL. 2006. Bahasa-Bahasa di Indonesi. Jakarta: SIL International, Cabang Indonesia.

Slametmuljana. 1992. Asal Bangsa dan Bahasa Nusantara. Semarang: Balai Pustaka Media Wiyata.

Sudaryanto. 1993. Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa. Yogyakarta: Duta Wacana University Press.

Suhardi. 2013. Pengantar Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media

Widjono. 1998. Membedah Sejarah Masyarakat Adat Dayak. Artikel seri Publikasi Lembaga Bina Benua Puti Jaji dan Japan NGO Network on Indonesia.

Wurm, S.A. and Shirô Hattori. 1981. Maps Of Insular South-East Asia. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research Schooll of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20961/prasasti.v1i1.546

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Prasasti: Journal of Linguistics published by Doctoral Program of Postgraduate of Universitas Sebelas Maret, Solo Indonesia.

  Flag Counter

Number of Visitors:

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.